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Chapters 4 and 5

Stack #2537015

TermDefinition
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; hereditary material that controls all the activities of a cell, contains the information to make new cells, and provides instructions for making proteins
nucleotide a subunit of DNA consisting of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four nitroge consisting of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four nitrogenous bases
adenine one of the four bases that combined with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; adenine pairs with thymine
thymine one of the four bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; thymine pairs with adenine
quanine one of the four bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; guanine pairs with cytosine
cytosine one of the four bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; cytosine pairs with guanine
ribosome a small organelle in cells where proteins are made from amino acids
mutation a change in the order of the bases in an organism's DNA; deletion, insertion, or substitution.
mutagen anything that can damage or cause changes in DNA
pedigree a diagram of family history used for tracking a trait through several generations
adaption a characteristic trait that helps an organism survive in its environment
species the most specific of the seven levels of classification; characterized by a group of organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring
evolution the process by which populations accumulate inherited changes over time
fossil the solidified remains or imprints of a once-living organism
fossil record a historical sequence of life indicated by fossils found in layers of the Earth's crust
vestigial structure the remnant of a once-useful anatomical structure
trait a distinguishing quality that can be passed from one generation to another
selective breeding the breeding of organisms that have a certain desired trait
natural selection the process by which organisms with favorable traits survive and reproduce at a higher rate than organisms without the favorable trait
generation time the period between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next generation
speciation the process by which two populations of the same species become so different that they can no longer interbreed