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2016 - 17 Evolution

Evolution and Classification Unit 2016 - 17

TermDefinition
geographic isolation The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water
reproduction at different times; different mating behaviors; incompatible reproductive structures Factors that keeps species separate
sedimentary rock Most fossils form in this type of rock
cladogram Analysis of derived characters is used to generate this
half-life The length of time required for half of the radioactive isotope in a sample to decay
adaptive radiation A single species that has evolved into several different forms that live in different ways has undergone this
Cenozoic era Earth’s most recent era
convergent evolution organisms that are not closely related look similar
mass extinctions encouraged the rapid evolution of surviving species by providing new opportunities for them
punctuated equilibrium A pattern in which species experience long, stable periods interrupted by brief periods of rapid evolutionary change
master control genes, or homeotic genes, could have affected evolution through small changes in timing during embryonic development
dinosaurs the dominant land animals during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods
genus composed of a number of related species
Charles Lyell emphasized that gradual geological events in the past could explain the physical features of today’s Earth
gene pool The combined alleles of all the individuals that make up a population
Biological fitness the ability of the individual to contribute to the gene pool of the next generation
vestigial structures the pelvis and femur in whales
finches of different species on the Galápagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the hypothesis that these finch species originated from a common ancestor
Thomas Malthus suggested populations can grow faster than the rate at which food and resources can be produced.
Antibiotics medicines that kill or slow the growth of bacteria
Darwin’s theory of evolution based on the ideas of variation and natural selection
When farmers select animals or plants to use for breeding they look for inherited traits that are of value to humans
genetic drift allele frequencies change because of chance
evolutionary classification The grouping of organisms based on their common descent
Similar DNA sequences in genes evidence of common ancestry
eukaryotes organisms in the kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
Monera Organisms in the domains Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were previously grouped in a kingdom
The three-domain system recognizes fundamental differences between two groups prokaryotes
structure; environment; way of life Fossils usually provide paleontologists with information about each of these
Their ribosomes resemble the ribosomes of bacteria facts about mitochondria and chloroplasts constitutes support for the endosymbiotic theory
Created by: ccarlough