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Population Genetics

ch 16/19

evolution the change of genetic composition of poupuations
micro eveloution the change within species which can occur over dozens of generations
macroeveloution involves longer periods of time and formations of new species
population genetics the field of biology that studies microeveloution
varation change or difference in conditio, amount, or level
gene pool the stock of different geners in an interbreeeing population
why use hardy weinburg because it decribes a hypothetical situation where there isno cahnge in the gene pool, it involves non-evolving poulations under cirtian conditions
five conditions that must be met to be in hardy weinburg equilibrium large population breedeing, random mating, no mutaions, no migragtion, no natural selection
hardy wienburg formula p2 +2pq+ q2 = 1
p2 occurance of homozygous dominant
2pq occurance of heterozygous genotype
q2 occurance of homozygous ressive
p dominant allele frequence
q ressive allele frequnece
why must p +q = 1 becuase 1 represents 100% of the popuation
natural selection of siclke cell anemia favors heterozygotes because they only carry the trait for sicke cell and are immune to miliaria
directional selection occurs when selection favors one extreme trait and the intermdiate trait and excludes an extreme
disruptive selection occurs when the slelection favors the two extremes over the intermdiate trait that results in two groups
stabilizing selection occurs when selection favors the intermidaite trait value over the extremes
what are the mecahnisms taht affect gene pools mutaitons and gene flow
gene flow refers to migration of individjuals between populations
mutaitons any change in gentic info usually results from a slight error in DNA replication. some are beneficial while others are not
genetic drift random change in allele frequences is noticed in small locations
founder effect genetic dirft that follows the colinization of a new habitat. person who settles first determines the allele frequencesq
bottleneck effect genttic drift that involves the dirastic reduction in populations for a few generations
how do genotype freqeencies change in populations that are interbreeding gradual increase in homozygosity
natural selection the process in which ogranism adapt to their environment and tned to seuvive and produse more offspring
artificaial slection involves breeders who slect only plants and amimals with desired traits for breeding
fossils as evidence in evloution offer phyiscal records of ongainsms that no longer exhist
speciation the formation of new species, happens to two populations become so different in their gentic makeup that they can no longer interbreeed, happens more to small populations
how do homologuous sturctures in animals provide eveidence for exvolution you cna look cloceley at realted speices and beheivor, sturectue of DNA, and protiens can be comparied
how can scientists use dna and protiens they can compare amino acids and ifthey are similar they could be from the same anscestor
geographical isolation leading to speciation occurs when 2 groups are seperated by water mountians and caynons
ecolgical isonation when 2 popuations adapt to deifferent habitats
beherival isolation if teh matting pattern of a group of organism becomes differnt from the main group
embryological evolution the mor similarites in th eembryo the clocer realted organisms are
adaptive radiation when a popuation enters an environment with few competing species it often divides into several smaller popuations
when does adaptive radiation he populations avoid cometing with each other by adapting to diffeent havitats. the adaptiaions keep populait separate leading to a new species
Created by: ella27



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