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bio 100 lecture

unit 4

QuestionAnswer
1) Ecology is the study of ________. A) interactions between humans and other species B) life C) human effects on the environment D) interactions between organisms and their environments interactions between organisms and their environments
2) Which of the following is abiotic? A) a protist B) a plant C) a rock D) a fungus a rock
3) If you study how two species of finches compete for food, you are trying to answer a question about ________. A) ecosystems ecology B) community ecology C) organismal ecology D) population ecology community ecology
4) What level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of the same species? A) ecosystem B) population C) community D) organism population
5) What level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of different species? A) population B) community C) ecosystem D) organism community
6) What is a population? A) a group of organisms living in a particular geographic area B) a community as well as all the abiotic factors in a particular geographic area C) a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic area a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic area
7) Which of these is a community? A) all of the organisms living in your home B) all of the nut grass (considered a weed) in your backyard C) all of the Staphylococcus aureus (a species of bacteria living on your skin all of the organisms living in your home
8) What level of ecology is concerned with both the biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment? A) population B) organism C) ecosystem D) community ecosystem
9)What are estuaries? A) transition areas between a river and the ocean B) types of freshwater biomes C) areas near the start of a river D) regions where ocean meets land transition areas between a river and the ocean
10) Water-storing plants and deeply rooted shrubs are plants that characterize ________. A) deserts B) chaparral C) tropical forests D) savanna deserts
11) The Sahara Desert and the Negev Desert belong to the same ________. A) savanna ecosystem B) temperate grassland C) biome D) community biome
12) Long, snowy winters as well as evergreen trees such as pine and fir are found in ________. A) temperate broadleaf forests B) temperate grasslands C) chaparral D) coniferous forests coniferous forests
13) Permafrost, or permanently frozen subsoil, characterizes ________. A) temperate broadleaf forest B) coniferous forest C) chaparral D) tundra tundra
14) Most of the temperate grassland in North America has been converted to ________. A) small neighborhoods B) national parks C) cities D) farmland farmland
15) The greenhouse effect causes an increase in global temperatures. This increase is due primarily to A) the loss of ozone that trapped cooling UV radiation in the atmosphere B) CO2 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth CO2 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth
16) An effect of deforestation has been to ________. A) increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere B) decrease the rate of carbon dioxide production through cellular respiration increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
17) Examine the figure below. Which part of Earth receives the greatest intensity of solar radiation? A) North and South Poles B) All parts of Earth receive the same intensity of solar radiation. C) equator D) Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn equator
18) Examine the figure below. Globally, the largest amount of water moves from ________. A) land to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration B) the oceans to the atmosphere by evaporation C) the atmosphere to land by precipitation the oceans to the atmosphere by evaporation
19) Chinese privet is a plant that is native to China. (see study guide for rest of info) B) non-native plant species have Type I survivorship curves C) introducing non-native organisms can cause environmental damage introducing non-native organisms can cause environmental damage
20) Which of these is a characteristic of Type I survivorship? A) Survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age. C) There is low survivorship for the very young. D) Most individuals survive to older age intervals. Most individuals survive to older age intervals.
21) Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit ________. A) few offspring and good parental care B) an intermediate number of offspring and an intermediate level of parental care C) many offspring and good parental care few offspring and good parental care
22) Which of these best describes Type II survivorship? A) Most individuals survive to older age intervals. B) There is high survivorship for the very young. C) Survivorship is constant over the lifespan. Survivorship is constant over the lifespan.
23) Which of these best describes Type III survivorship? A) Most individuals survive to older age intervals. C) Survivorship is constant over the lifespan. D) Survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age. Survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age.
24) Opportunistic species typically ________. A) exhibit a Type I survivorship curve B) are very long-living C) have a large number of offspring D) reach sexual maturity slowly have a large number of offspring
25) In an ideal, unlimited environment, a population's growth follows a(n) ________ model. A) density-dependent B) logistic C) boom-and-bust D) exponential exponential
26) If a population's growth rate decreases as the population size approaches carrying capacity, the population's growth follows a(n) ________ model. A) density-independent B) exponential C) logistic D) boom-and-bust logistic
27) In an ideal, unlimited environment, what shape does a population's growth curve most closely resemble? A) J B) ∪ C) S D) ∧ J
28) In a population that is following a logistic growth pattern, what shape does the population's growth curve most closely resemble? A) ∧ B) S C) J D) ∪ S
29) ________ is the maximum population size that a particular habitat can support. A) Population cycle B) Carrying capacity C) Survivorship curve D) Life history pattern carrying capacity
30) Competition among individuals of the same species is ________ competition. A) intraspecific B) Type III C) Type II D) density-independent intraspecific
31) Which of these factors operates on populations in a density-dependent manner? A) volcanic eruption B) flood C) blizzard D) food supply food supply
32) An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of ________. A) a biological control B) a density-independent factor C) a population momentum D) a density-dependent factor a density-independent factor
33) You arrive back in the United States after having visited a foreign country. . . C) contaminated with CFCs that will damage the ozone layer above North America D) carrying a non-native species that could damage North American ecosystems carrying a non-native species that could damage North American ecosystems
34) Integrated pest management ________. A) favors overwhelming a pest with chemical pesticides B) aims to keep pest populations on an exponential growth curve C) advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops
35) Throughout most of human history, human population size ________. A) showed boom-and-bust cycles B) was at carrying capacity C) skyrocketed D) grew very slowly grew very slowly
36) The ecological footprint of the United States ________. A) is about the same as the global average B) shows that its population size is increasing slowly D) shows that Americans consume a disproportionate amount of food and fuel shows that Americans consume a disproportionate amount of food and fuel
37) When did male fur seals reach carrying capacity? A) 1950 B) 1940 C) 1930 D) 1915 1940
38) Which population is growing at the fastest rate? (see graph) A) Population A B) Population B C) Population C D) They are all growing at the same rate. population
39) Populations of two coexisting species are both tertiary consumers in a community. What relationship may exist between these two organisms? (see graph) A) predation B) competition C) mutualism D) succession competition
40) Organisms that consume producers are ________. A) decomposers B) producers C) detritivores D) primary consumers primary consumers
41) In the food chain grass → antelope → human → lion, the antelope is ________. A) both an herbivore and a primary consumer B) a secondary consumer only C) both a producer and a primary consumer D) both an herbivore and a secondary consumer both an herbivore and a primary consumer
42) In the food chain grass → antelope → human → lion, the human is a ________. A) tertiary consumer B) primary consumer C) producer D) secondary consumer secondary consumer
43) Small fishes that eat zooplankton are ________. A) producers B) secondary consumers C) tertiary consumers D) primary consumers secondary consumers
44) Which of these convert organic matter to inorganic matter by breaking down dead organisms? A) producers B) primary consumers C) decomposers D) detritivores decomposers
45) Most decomposers are ________. A) animals B) bacteria and plants C) fungi and prokaryotes D) plants and fungi fungi and prokaryotes
46) Bears eat berries, humans, and large fish; large fish eat smaller fish and insects; humans eat bears, large fish, and berries; Venus flytraps eat insects. This is an example of A) a food chain B) an ecosystem C) a food web D) parasitism food web
47) Herbivory is an example of a ________ interaction. A) +/- B) 0/+ C) -/- D) +/+ +/-
48) In Yellowstone National Park, wolves were hunted to extinction in the 1920s . . . A) Species diversity should decrease. B) Species richness should increase, and the relative abundances of each species should be about equal. Species richness should increase, and the relative abundances of each species should be about equal.
49) Two lakes have the same number of species. Most of the fish A) Lake 2 B) Lake 1 C) They are equally diverse. D) The number and relative abundance of species are not related to diversity lake 2
50) What is one way in which energy flow differs from chemical cycling? B) Energy flows from lower to higher trophic levels; chemicals cycle from higher to lower trophic levels. C) Energy flow is unidirectional; chemical elements can be recycled. Energy flow is unidirectional; chemical elements can be recycled.
51) Biomass is the total amount of ________ an ecosystem. A) living organic material in B) organic matter tied up in the consumers of C) chemical elements recycled by the detritivores of D) organic matter tied up in the producers of living organic material in
52) On average, what percentage of the energy in one trophic level becomes incorporated into the next higher trophic level? A) 30% B) 50% C) 90% D) 10% 10%
53) Why are most food chains limited to three to five trophic levels? A) Most ecosystems have insufficient space to support the increased number of organisms that... B) There is insufficient energy to support more trophic levels. There is insufficient energy to support more trophic levels.
54) The atmosphere is approximately 80% ________ gas. A) N2 B) CH4 C) CO2 D) H2O N2
55) Which of these organisms convert atmospheric nitrogen gas to a form that can be utilized by plants? A) bacteria B) animals C) fungi D) protists bacteria
56) The primary goal of conservation biology is to ________. A) integrate human culture back into nature B) counter the loss of biodiversity C) catalog species D) maximize the land set aside for wildlife counter the loss of biodiversity
57) E. O. Wilson coined the term ________ for our innate appreciation of wild environments and living organisms. A) biophobia B) bioethics C) bioremediation D) biophilia biophilia
58) Refer to the accompanying figure. All of the living components of the coral reef represent a(n) ________. A) ecosystem B) community C) species D) population community
59) The figure below shows growth curves of 2 pop of Paramecium, P. aurelia and P. caudatum. From the data, we can conclude that B) P. aurelia is a predator of P. caudatum C) P. aurelia is the superior competitor in this habitat P. aurelia is the superior competitor in this habitat
60) Refer to the following figure. If there were an additional trophic level that consisted of organisms that prey on snakes, about how much energy would be available to organisms at that trophic level? A) 1 kcal B) 100 kcal C) 90% D) 10 kcal 1kcal
61) All of the red squirrels living on a college campus would be a(n) A) ecosystem B) family C) population D) genus E) community population
62) Woodpeckers, insects, bacteria, hawks, and raccoons are found to reside in the same forest. Studies of the interactions between these organisms would be at the level of a A) community B) species C) population D) biosphere E) niche community
63) Which one of the following is TRUE regarding the flow of energy through an ecosystem? D) Energy is cycled through an ecosystem rarely lost as heat. E) Energy flows from the sun to producers to consumers. Energy flows from the sun to producers to consumers.
64) Omnivores differ from carnivores in that omnivores derive their energy from A) detritus B) plants, animals, and photosynthesis C) green plants D) plants and animals E) animals only plants and animals
65) The figure above shows an ecological pyramid. Which level of this pyramid contains the primary producers? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) C and D D
66) Certain gases in the upper atmosphere allow sunlight to pass through to Earth's surface, but prevent heat from escaping. This is known as A) eutrophication B) global positioning C) thermal inversion D) desertification E) the greenhouse effect the green house effect
67) The largest hole in the ozone layer occurs in the stratospheric layer over A) the eastern coast of the United States B) Africa and South America C) Antarctica D) the western coast of the United States E) the Amazon rainforests Antarctica
68) Earthworms live in many grass and forest ecosystems, and they aerate the soil as they burrow. These traits, taken collectively, make up the ________ of the earthworm. A) niche B) ecosystem profile D) resource partition profile E) community profile niche
69) A species that is a mimic will most likely A) resemble its surroundings. B) have a behavior similar to that of a more toxic species. C) use bright colors to warn that it is harmful. D) produce chemicals that deter predators. have a behavior similar to that of a more toxic species.
70) A predator might use ________ to enable it to catch its prey. A) coevolution B) camouflage C) symbiosis D) startle coloration E) warning coloration camouflage
71) Succession that begins on bare rock after glaciers have passed, or on newly formed volcanic islands, is A) primary. B) pioneer. C) autogenic. D) secondary. E) allogenic. primary
72) After a forested area such as a national forest is clear-cut, what type of succession occurs? A) Subclimax B) Biome C) Secondary D) Primary E) Climax secondary
73) Predation is similar to ________ in that both types of relationship benefit one of the interacting species while harming the other. A) parasitism B) competition C) symbiosis D) mutualism E) coevolution parasitism
74) ________ are large areas that have similar environmental conditions and characteristic plant communities. A) Climax communities B) Ecosystems C) Climatic zones D) Biospheres E) Biomes biomes
75) Based on the data in the table, this population has a ________ growth pattern. A) scramble competition B) boom-and-bust C) S-curve D) replacement-level fertility E) J-curve J curve
76) A random population distribution A) occurs when resources are evenly spaced. B) is rare. C) is found only in plants. D) is an advantage in avoiding predators. E) allows predators to hunt more effectively. is rare
77) If an insect eats the lettuce seedlings in your yard, it is acting most like a(n) A) carnivore. B) mutualist. C) host. D) omnivore. E) herbivore. herbivore
78) If you find a brightly colored insect resting on a dead leaf, the insect is likely to A) have aggressive mimicry. B) have startle coloration. C) be camouflaged. D) be poisonous or distasteful. E) be prey for birds. poisonous or distasteful
79) Harmless king snakes mimic the color patterns of venomous coral snakes. . . A) Predators would initially avoid king snakes but soon learn to attack and eat them. D) Predators would avoid king snakes. E) Predators would attack and eat king snakes. predators would attack and eat king snakes
80) Fleas on a dog are an example of A) predators. B) parasites. C) hosts. D) mutualists. E) prey. parasites
Created by: lumosnoxx