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chapter 12

endocrine system

adrenal cortex outer portion of the adrenal gland that secretes corticosteroids
adrenal gland gland perched on top of the kidney; consists of two distinct glands (adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex)
adrenal medulla inner portion of the adrenal gland that functions as part of the sympathetic nervous system
catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine; secreted by the adrenal medulla
corticosteroids steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
endocrine gland ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
gonads primary sex organs; which are the testes in the male and ovaries in the female
Graves' disease disorder resulting from hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
hormone chemical secreted by glands and specialized cells of the endocrine system
pancreas secretes digestive enzymes (exocrine function) as well as hormones used to regulate blood glucose levels (endocrine function)
parathyroid hormone glands embedded on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland that secrete a hormone used to regulate blood calcium levels
pineal glnad produces the hormone melatonin, which increases at night and decreases during the day
pituitary gland small gland attached to the lower surface of the hypothalamus that secretes a number of hormones that regulate many bodily processes; consists of an anterior and posterior lobe
target cells cells having receptors for a particular hormone
tetany sustained muscle contraction; may result from hypocalcemia
thymus secretes hormones having a role in the development of the immune system
thyroid gland gland in the neck that secretes hormones that affect the body's metabolic rate
Anterior pituitary hormones Growth hormone, Prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone
growth hormone released by the anterior pituitary, effects growth and the repair of tissue through the breakdown of proteins and fats
prolactin effects milk secretion
thyroid-stimulating hormone effects growth of the thyroid gland and secretion of thyroid hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone effects growth of and secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone effects: female growth of ovarian follicles and secretions of estrogen male: sperm production
lutenizing hormone effects: female: ovulation, maintenance of corpus luteum Male: secretion of testosterone
Posterior pituitary hormones antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
antidiuretic hormone effects water retention
oxytocin effects stimulation of uterine contractions; stimulation of release of milk into the ducts of mammary glands
Thyroid gland hormones T3, T4, and calcitonin
T3 increases rate of metabolism
T4 increases the rate of metabolism
calcitonin increases deposition of calcium in bones, lowering blood calcium levels
parathyroid hormone released by the parathyroid, increases blood calcium levels by increasing removal of calcium from bone, reducing urinary excretion of calcium and increasing absorption of calcium by the intestines
Hormones released by the adrenal medulla epinephrine, norepinephrine
epinephrine enhances the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
norepinephrine enhances the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
hormones released by the adrenal cortex aldosterone, cortisol, adrenal androgens, and adrenal estrogens
aldosterone promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion, which leads to water retention
cortisol stimulates the breakdown of fat and protein and the conversion of fat and protein to glucose; enhances tissue repair; antiinflammatory; in large amounts, inhibits the immune system
adrenal androgens promotes growth of pubic and axillary hair; sex drive
adrenal estrogens physiologically insignificant
Type 1 diabetes rapid onset before age 30; daily insulin injections are needed; caused by a deficiency of insulin resulting from the destruction of beta cells in the pancreatic islets
Type 2 diabetes gradual onset after age 40; lifestyle changes may be all that is needed; caused by a loss of insulin receptors on target cells leading to insulin resistance
hormones of the pancreatic islets glucagon, insulin, somatostatin
glucagon stimulates the breakdown of the stored form of glucose for release into the bloodstream
insulin stimulates the movement of glucose from the bloodstream into the cells
somatostatin mainly helps regulate the secretion of other hormones of the pancreas
Created by: lindstromjPN110