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Chapter 10

nervous system

TermDefinition
action potential nerve impulse
adrenergic fibers nerve fibers that secrete norepinephrine
afferent neuron sensory nerve that carries impulses toward the central nervous system
alpha-adrenergic receptors receptors to norepinephrine that generally produce an excitatory response
autonomic nervous system subdivision of the nervous system responsible for regulating activities that maintain homeostasis; called visceral motor system
axon fiber extending form a neuron's cell body that conducts impulses
beta-adrenergic receptors receptors to norepinephrine that generally produce an inhibitory response
central nervous system portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
brainstem stem-like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres to the spinal cord; consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
cerebellum portion of the brain responsible for coordination of voluntary movement and balance
cerebral cortex the surface of the cerebrum consisting of a thin layer of gray matter
cerebrospinal fluid clear, colorless fluid that fills the brain's ventricles and central canal and also bathes the outside of the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum largest portion of the brain
cholinergic fibers nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine
cranial nerves nerves of the peripheral nervous system that arise directly from the brain instead of from the spinal cord
dermatome a specific area of the skin innervated by a spinal nerve
efferent neuron motor nerve that carries impulses away from the central nervous system
epidural space small space between the outer covering of the spinal cord and the vertebrae
frontal lobe portion of the cerebrum responsible for decision making, reasoning, memory, and voluntary movements
gray matter nervous tissue containing mostly cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons
hypothalamus the bottom half of the diencephalon of the brain, which is responsible for many vital body functions
limbic system complex set of structures in the brain responsible for emotion and leaning
medulla oblongata attaches to spinal cord; contains centers that govern heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing
meninges layer of fibrous connective tissue covering the brain and spinal cord
mixed nerve nerve that contains both sensory and motor fibers
myelin fatty sheath encasing the axons of many neurons; formed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system
nerve a bundle of neurons that transmits impulses between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body
neuroglia cells in the nervous system that support neurons but do not conduct impulses
neurons nervous system cells that conduct impulses
occipital lobe portion of the cerebrum responsible for analyzing and interpreting visual information
parasympathetic division division of the autonomic nervous system that primarily has a calming effect; "rest and digest"
parietal lobe portion of the cerebrum concerned with bodily sensations and proprioception
peripheral nervous system portion of the nervous system consisting of the network of nerves throughout the body
plexus a network of nerves
polarization the electrical state of a cell membrane that has an excess of positive ions on one side of the membrane and an excess of negative ions on the other sides
reflex arc a neural circuit that bypasses regions of the brain where conscious decisions are made
somatic reflex reflex involving contraction of a skeletal muscle after being stimulated by a somatic motor neuron
sympathetic division division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for "fight or flight" response
Created by: lindstromjPN110