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Chapter 9

muscular system

acetylcholine a chemical messenger released from the end of a motor neuron
actin protein of which the thin myofilaments are composed
aerobic respiration process that breaks down fatty acids for energy when oxygen is present
anaerobic respiration process that breaks down glucose for energy when oxygen is not plentiful
antagonist muscles that oppose the action of a prime mover
aponeurosis flat, broad tendon that attaches a muscle to another muscle or to bone
ATP adenosine triphosphate; used for energy in cells to perform various functions, including muscle contractions
atrophy decrease in the size of a muscle
belly the thick midsection or middle of the muscle
complete tetanus condition in which impulses arrive so fast that muscle cannot relax between stimuli and twitches merge into one prolonged contractions
creatine phosphate compound stored in muscle that is used for short bursts of high-energy activity
endomysium delicate connective tissue covering each muscle fiber
epimysium connective tissue covering that surrounds muscles as a whole and binds all muscle fibers together
fascia connective tissue surrounding the muscle
fascicles bundles of muscle fibers
hypertrophy enlargement of a muscle
incomplete tetanus condition of rapid muscle contraction with only partial relaxation
insertion the end of a muscle that attaches to the more mobile bone
isometric contraction contraction in which the tension within a muscle increases while its length remains the same; think plnak exercise
isotonic contraction contraction in which the muscle changes length to move a load; think lifting a weight
motor unit a neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates
muscle fiber a skeletal muscle cell
muscle tone continuous state of partial muscle contraction that allows for the maintenance of posture
myofibrils long protein bundles that fill the sarcoplasm of a muscle fiber
myofilaments fine protein fibers that make up a myofibril
myosin protein of which the thick myofilaments are composed
neuromuscular junctions connection between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber
origin the end of a muscle that attaches to the more stationary bone
perimysium sheath of connective tissue encasing fascicles
prime mover the main muscle triggering a movement
sarcomere the unit of contraction of the myofibrils of a muscle
sarcoplasm the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
synaptic cleft narrow space between the end of a motor nerve and the muscle fiber
synergists muscles that assist in the movement of a bone
tendon strong, fibrous cord through which a muscle attaches to a bone
transverse (T) tubules tubules that extend across the sarcoplasm and allow electrical impulses to travel deep into the cell
treppe phenomenon in which each successive twitch contracts more forcefully than the previous one
twitch single, brief contraction
Created by: lindstromjPN110