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Chapter 6

bones and bone tissue

TermDefinition
articular cartilage thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the surface of the epiphysis
canaliculi microscopic passageways that connect lamellae to each other
cancellous bone spongy bone found in the ends of long bones and the middle of most other bones
compact bone dense solid bone that forms the shafts of long bones and the outer surfaces of other bones
diaphysis the central shaft-like portion of long bone
endochondral ossification process in the fetus whereby cartilaginous skeleton transforms into bone
endosteum thin epithelial membrane lining the inside of the medullary cavity
epiphysis the head of each end of a long bone
haversian canal a central canal in compact bone containing blood vessels and nerves: surrounded by lamellae
intramembranous ossification process in the fetus whereby fibrous connective tissue evolves into bone
lacunae tiny gaps between rings of lamellae in compact bone
lamellae concentric rings of matrix surrounding haversian canal in compact bone
medullary cavity the central hollow portion of long bone that contains bone marrow
osseous tissue bone tissue
ossification the creation of new bone
osteoblast bone-forming cell
osteoclasts bone cells that dissolve old or unhealthy bone
osteocyte mature osteoblast
osteon basic structural unit of compact cone consisting of a haversian canal and surrounding lamellae
periosteum dense fibrous membrane covering the diaphysis
remodeling reshaping or reconstructing part of a bone
resorption the destruction of old bone; part of the bone remodeling process
spongy bone also called cancellous bone; found in the ends of long bones and the middle of most other bones
trabeculae latticework of osseous tissue that makes up the structure of spongy or cancellous bone
bone functions shape, support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, blood production, and acid-base balance
types of bone long bones, flat bones, short bones, irregular bones
long bones have a very long axis and are longer than they are wide; femur, humerus
flat bones thin, flat, curged bones that protect organs; skull bones, ribs, sternum
irregular bones often in groups, are various sizes and shapes; vertebrae, facial bones
short bones broad as they are long; carpal bones, tarsal bones
growth plate epiphyseal plate
tensile strength resistance to stretching forces
compressional strength resistance to strong, squeezing forces
torsional strength resistance to twisting forces
red bone marrow produces red blood cells
yellow bone marrow does not produce red blood cells
fontanels "soft spot"; fibrous connective tissue on the newborn skull. allows for compression of the fetal head during birth and skull expansion in the first 2 years of life when the brian is growing
simple fracture bone remains aligned and the surrounding tissue is intact
compound fracture bone has pierced through the skin there is likely damage to surrounding tissue, nerves, and blood vessels along with an increased risk of infection
greenstick fracture incomplete fracture similar to when a green stick breaks, thus the name. typically occurs in young children because their bones are softer and the bone will likely splinter rather than break completely
comminuted fracture bone is broken into pieces
spiral fracture fracture line spirals around the bone, result of a twisting force. frequently seen with child abuse
Created by: lindstromjPN110