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NURS1004 Week 5

Introduction to human cells pp. 91-157, 539-542

What is cytology? The study of cellular structure and function
What 2 general classes of cells does the human body contain? 1. Somatic cells 2. Sex cells
What are sex cells in the human body? What is their purpose? What can they also be called sometimes? They are either sperm of males or oocytes or "eggs" of females. The fusion of a sperm and an oocyte at fertilization is the first step in creating a new individual. They can otherwise be known as germ cells or reproductive cells.
What are somatic cells? They are 'body' cells and include all the other cells in the human body.
What is the cytoplasm of a cell? The inside of a cell that can be subdivided into the cytosol (fluid), and intracellular structures called organelles.
What is the Plasma Membrane? Phospholipid bilayer containing phospholipids, steroids, proteins and carbohydrates. The plasma membrane isolates protects and supports the structure of the cell as well as controlling the entry and exit of materials.
What is the Cytoskeleton? Proteins organised in fine filaments or slender tubes. They provide strength, support and movement of cellular structures and materials. ------ (slender) Microfilaments ======== (thicker) Microtubles
What are the Centrosomes and Centrioles? How many are in the cytoplasm? How many microtubule triplets is composed in each centriole? Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division; organisation of microtubules in cytoskeleton. Cytoplasm contains 2 centrioles at right angles. 9 microtubule triplets in a 9 + 0 array.
What is the Cilla? What are the different types? Long extentions of the plasma membrane containing microtubules. There is 2 types; Primary and Motile. A primary cillium acts as a sensor and motile cillia move materials over cell surfaces.
What are Proteasomes? Hollow cylinders of proteolytic enzymes with regulatory proteins at their ends. They breakdown and recycle damaged or abnormal intracellular proteins.
What are Ribosomes? What are the 2 types? What is their function? RNA and proteins, 2 types fixed and free. Fixed are bound to rough endoplasmic reticulum and free are scattered in the cytoplasm. Their function is to synthesis protein.
What are Peroxisomes? Vessicles containing degradative enzymes. They catabolise fats and other organic compounds and neutralize toxic compounds generated in the process.
What is Catabolism? The breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism.
What are Lysosomes? Vesicles containing digestive enzymes, their function is the intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens.
What is the Golgi apparatus? Stacks of flattened membranes (cisternae) containing chambers. They store, alter and package secretory products and lysosomal enzymes.
What is the Mitochondria? Double membrane with inner membrane folds (cristae) enclosing important metabolic enzymes. The mitochondria portuces 95% of the ATP required by a cell (energy).
What does the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum do? Modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins.
What does the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum do? Synthesises lipids and carbohydrates
What is cyanosis? Bluish dis-colouration due to excessive de-oxygenation
What is the Nucleus? Controls metabolism, stores and processes genetic information and controls protein synthesis.
What are 4 functions of the plasma membrane? 1. Physical isolation 2. Regulation of exchange with the environment 3. Sensitivity to the environment 4. Structural support
What is another terminology for the plasma membrane of a cell and what is it made up of? Phospholipid Bilayer, Lipids are the hydrophobic tail on the inside of the layer, Phosphates are the hydrophillic head.
What is extracellular fluid? Fluid outside of the cell
What is intracellular fluid? Fluid inside the cell (cytosol)
What 4 other substances are in the cell membrane? 1. Cholesterole and other seroids 2. Small quantites of other lipids 3. Proteins 4. Glycolipids.
What is the cholesteroles purpose for the cell membrane? Stiffens the plasma membrane making it less fluid and less permeable.
Created by: Kirky