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NURS1004 Week 10

Week 10 Cardiovascular System

What does 'Cardio' refer to? The heart
What does 'Angio' refer to? Blood of lymph vessel
What does 'Valvul' refer to? Valve
What does 'Arteri' refer to? Artery
What does 'Aort' refer to? Aorta
What does 'Phleb' refer to? Vein
What does 'Ven/o' refer to? Vein
What does 'Thromb' refer to? Clot
What is Endocarditis? Inflammation within the heart
What is Bradycardia? A slow heart rate
What is Tachycardia? A fast heart rate
What is Angioma? A tumor consisting of blood and lymph vessels
What is Angiostenosis? The narrowing of a blood vessel
What is Angioplasty? The surgical repair of a blood vessel (to widen or unblock)
What is Valvuloplasty? The surgical repair of a valve
What is Valvulitis? The inflammation of a valve
What is Arteriosclerosis? The thickening or hardening of the arterial walls
What is an Arteriogram? An x-ray (or record) of an artery
What is Aortorrhaphy? The suturing of the aorta
What is Aortosclerosis? The thickening or hardening of the aorta
What is a Phlebectomy? The surgical removal of a vein
What is Phlebitis? The inflammation of a vein
What is Phlebothrombosis? The condition of clot in a vein
What is the Thrombocyte? A cell called a platelet (clotting cell)
What is Lymphoma? A tumor of the lymphatic system
What is a Lymphocyte? A white blood cell formed in the lymphatic system
What does ABG stand for? Arterial Blood Gas
What does MI stand for? Myocardial Infarction
What does CAD stand for? Coronary Artery Disease
What does CHD stand for? Coronary Heart Disease
What four essential items are transported by blood throughout the circulatory system? Oxygen, Nutrients, Waste, and Hormones
What is the primary transport vehicle in our cardiovascular system? Blood
What is the outer membrane called that anchors the heart to the diaphragm and the sternum? Pericardium
What is the fluid called that provides lubrication between the pericardium and the Epicardium? Serous Fluid
What is the outermost muscle tissue of the heart? Epicardium
What is the middle layer of muscle within the heart that contains contractile muscle fibers? Myocardium
What layer is considered the innermost layer of muscle within the heart? Endocardium
How many chambers are found in the human heart? FOUR
What is the primary function of the atria (atrium)? To receive blood
What is the primary function of the ventricles? To pump blood (One directional)
What separates each chamber of the heart? The septum
Which side of the heart handles deoxygenated blood? Right side of the heart
Which side of the heart handles oxygenated blood? Left side of the heart
What is the function of the left atrium? Receives oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins
What is the function of the left ventricle? Sends oxygenated blood through aorta
What is the function of the right atrium? Receives deoxygenated blood from venae cavae
What is the function of the right ventricle? Sends deoxygenated blood through pulmonary arteries
What are the 2 types of atrioventricular valves? - Bicuspid (left side of heart) - Tricuspid (right side of heart) Opened when atria fill with blood
What does ECG stand for? Electrocardiograph
What is the P wave; results in contraction of atria? Atrial Depolarization
When does Atrial Repolarization occur? At the same time as QRS complex
What is the QRS complex? Ventricular Depolarization; results in contraction of ventricles
What is the T wave? Ventricular Repolarization
What is the P wave? Depolarization of the atria
What is the Sinoatrial (SA) node? The node is known as the pacemaker of the heart
What is the Atrioventricular (AV) node? A small mass in the lower septum of the right atrium that passes impulses from the sinoatrial node toward the ventricles
What is Atrioventricular bundle? A bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
What are Bundle branches? Located at the interventricular septum, the AV bundle divides into the right and left bundle branches, the function of which is to conduct the electrical impulse to the Purkinje fibers throughout the ventricles
What are Purkinje fibers? Fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
What is cardiac output? The volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute. Heart Rate.
What is Systole? Ventricular contraction
What is Diastole? Period in which the ventricles relax
What is the radial pulse? The pulse located on the inside of the wrist, where the radial artery runs just beneath the skin; thumb side of arm
What is the brachial pulse? The beating or throbbing felt over the brachial artery, usually palpated in the antecubital space
What is the apical pulse? A method of determining heart rate by placing the stethoscope over the apex of the heart
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Define Anatomy The structure of the body of humans, animals, and other living organisms.
Define Physiology The functions of the body parts of living organisms.
Which of the 3 layers of the heart contracts and relaxes with each heart beat? The myocardium (the middle layer)
What is the double layered sac that surrounds the heart? The pericardium
What is contained in the Pericardium? The pericardial sac has two layers, a serous layer and a fibrous layer. It encloses the pericardial cavity which contains pericardial fluid
Why is the myocardial layer different on the right and left side? The blood on the left side of the heart is getting pumped around the whole body so the Myocardial has to be thicker, whereas the blood on the right side is only getting pumped to and from the lungs which are very close to the heart.
What is the major difference between the right and left ventricles. Right ventricles pump blood to the pulmonary system. Left ventricles pump blood to the systemic circuit.
What structures control the flow of blood through the heart? What are thee 4 names? Valves make a one directional blood flow. 2 Atrioventricular = tricuspid valve and mitral valve 2 Semi lunar = the aortic valve and pulmonary valve
What is the Systemic circulatory system? Heart to/from body Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
What is the Pulmonary circulatory system? Heart to/from lungs Carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood back to the heart.
What 4 characteristics distinguish cardiac muscle cells from skeletal muscle cells? Cardiac muscle: 1. Is small in size 2. Has a single centrally locates nucleus 3. Has branching interconnections between cells 4. Has intercalated disks
Cardiac cells are interconnected by ... (what)? Intercalated discs
What are the Atria separated by? Interatrial Septum
What are the ventricles separated by? Interventricular Septum
Describe the processes within the Superior and Inferior Vena Cava The superior Vena Cava deliver blood from the head, neck, check and upper limbs to the Right atrium. The inferior Vena Cava deliver blood from the rest of the trunk, the viscera and the lower limbs to the Right atrium.
Describe the process within the Right Atrium The Right Atrium receives blood from the Superior and Inferior Vena Cava which is then transferred to the Right Ventricle through the Tricuspid valve.
Describe the process within the Right Ventricle Blood in the Right Ventricle has been received from the Right Atrium through the Ticuspid valve. The superior of the Right Ventricle has the Conus Arteriosus that ends at the Pulmonary valve that controls the movement of blood to the Pulmonary Trunk.
Describe the Tricuspid Valve, the process, and why it is called 'Tri' cuspid The Tricuspid valve is the Right Atrioventricular valve with 3 fibrous flaps. When the Right Ventricle contracts the Tricuspid Valve shuts preventing a back flow of blood into the Right Atrium.
Describe the Pulmonary Valve Consists of 3 semi-lunar cusps of thick connective tissue. Blood travelling from the Right Ventricle passes through this Valve into the Pulmonary Trunk - Which is the start of the Pulmonary circuit.
Describe the process within the Pulmonary Trunk This is the beginning of the Pulmonary Circuit, the blood has just traveled from the Right Ventricle through the Pulmonary Valve and the blood will now flow from the Pulmonary trunk into the Left and Right Pulmonary Arteries which send blood to the lungs.
What is the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle called? (1) Diastole
What is the inferior point of the heart called? The apex
Is the heart actually 1, 2 or 3 pumps? 2
Which chamber receives blood from the pulmonary veins? Left atrium
Which chamber receives blood from the superior and inferior Vena Cava? Right atrium
Which chamber pumps deoxygenated blood out of the pulmonary trunk? Right ventricle
Which chamber pumps oxygenated blood out of the aorta to the systemic circuit? Left Ventricle
Where is the normal pacemaker of the heart located? The sinoatrial node
Where does blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enter? The left atrium
What is the epicardium also known as? The visceral pericardium
Which part of the conduction system initiates the depolarizing impulse, which spreads throughout the heart? SA node
What does the ECG wave tracing represent? Electrical activity in the heart
What does the QRS complex represent? Ventricular depolarization
Contradiction of the atria results from which wave of depolarization on the ECG? P wave
Which part of the intrinsic conduction system delays the impulse briefly before it moves onto the ventricles? AV node
The __________ valve prevents back-flow of blood into the left ventricle. Aortic
With each ventricular systole blood pressure _________? Increases
During the T wave pf the ECG the ventricles are _________? Both repolarizing and relaxing
Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the _________? Vena Cava and Right atrium
What is the property of the heart muscle to contact in the absence of neural or hormonal stimulation called? Automaticity
In cardiac muscle what is the fast depolarization phase of the action potential a result of? Increased membrane permeability to sodium ions
What is the adult heart roughly the size of? A males clenched fist
Which of the following is an important difference between cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle? a) Cardiac muscle lack troponin B) Cardiac muscle
Created by: Kirky