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LS Final

Science Final Exam Study Guide

If I have the DNA GAACAAUGU what aminon acids will be created Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Cysteine
Growth To increase in size
Response To react to a change in the environment
Adaptation Any characteristic that allows an organism to survive
Movement To be able to move from place to place
Metabolism All changes in an organism that use or release energy
Reproduction Process by which living organisms multiply themselves
How many characteristics of life do you need to be considered living? All 6
What are the 2 types of movement and how are they different? The 2 types of movement are Locomotion, (running, jumping flying) and Transport (internal movement, digestion, blood cells)
What are the 2 types of reproduction? Sexual and Asexual
Body Tube holds the ocular lens
Ocular lens eyepiece (usually 10x mag. Our microscopes are 20x)
Stage clip holds slide firmly in place
Stage supports slide
Diaphragm Controls the amount of Light
Fine adjustment knob slightly moves stage to sharpen focus
Coarse adjustment knob raises and lowers the stage for focusing
Base supports the microscope
Power switch turns the illumination on and off
Arm connects to the base and barrel
Ocular (eyepiece) 10 or 20x
Scanning objective 4x
Low power objective 10x
High power objective 40x
Describe the 3 parts of cell theory The 3 parts of cell theory are all organisms are made of one or more cells, a cell is the smallest unit of life that carries out all 6 life processes, and all cells come from other cells.
Plasma (Cell) Membrane Controls what enters and leaves the cell, protects the cell, and maintains its shape, made from lipids and proteins.
Cytoplasm Clear fluid that fills the cell and supports the organelles. Also helps maintain its shape.
Nucleus The main part of the cell, controls the cell like a brain and contains the chromosomes (DNA).
Nuclear Envelope (Membrane) Surrounds the nucleus, controls what enters and leaves the nucleus
Mitochondria An organelle that changes chemicals into energy during respiration, the “powerhouse” of the cell.
Ribosome A part of the cell that makes proteins for the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Tube like transport system “subway” of the cell. There are 2 types smooth and rough.
Golgi Apparatus (Bodies) Packages and sends out proteins “UPS” of the cell. It receives proteins and lipids from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It modifies some of them and packs them into sealed droplets.
Vacuole Vacuoles are storage bubbles found in cells. It stores water, food, and even waste so the rest of the cell is protected from contamination.
Cell Wall An organelle that is only in plant cells, surrounds the cell membrane of the plant cell, and it provides support and shape
Chloroplast An organelle that contains chlorophyll, turns light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis
Lysosome An organelle that stores digestive enzymes for the cell to break down food
Centrioles An organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells during mitosis.
Which 2 organelles are only found in plant cells? The two organelles that are only found in plant cells are cell walls and chloroplast.
Which organelle is only found in animal cells? Centrioles are the only organelle that’s found in animal cells.
What is the difference between permeable, semipermeable, and impermeable, and what is the cell membrane considered? Permeable means that liquids can pass through it, semipermeable means that only certain materials can pass through, impermeable means no materials can pass through (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water). The cell membrane is considered semi permeable.
What is the cell membrane made of? Lipids and proteins
What part of the cell membrane allows small molecules to pass through? The fat molecules in the cell membrane allow small molecules to pass through.
What part of the cell membrane allows large molecules to pass through? The proteins
What is passive transport? Passive transport flows from high to low concentration and does not require energy, materials pass through lipids.
What is the difference between diffusion and osmosis? The difference between diffusion and osmosis is that diffusion refers to the movement of any chemical from one place to another, osmosis refers to the movement of water across a membrane.
What is active transport? Active transport requires energy, and flows from low to high concentration, materials pass through carrier proteins.
Where should you read the volume on a graduated cylinder? You should read the volume on a graduated cylinder at the bottom of the meniscus.
What is the formula for volume for an object that is rectangular, and what is the unit? length times width times height, the unit is cm cubed.
Describe the displacement method and what is the unit Measure the volume of water in a graduated cylinder, place the object in the graduated cylinder, measure the new volume of the water, subtract the difference between your initial volume and your new volume
What is the main energy source (Fuel) for cells? glucose
What is the name of the energy rich molecule that cells create for energy ATP
Describe the relationship between the amount of glucose and the amount of ATP created in a cell. In fermentation, glucose enters the cell and creates 2 ATP. In Respiration, 2 ATP is created with glucose, than in the mitochondrion 34 ATP is released from the oxygen and organic molecule, for a total of 36 ATP.
Can starch be used by cells to create energy, describe in detail why or why not? Yes it can but, a starch cannot be used by cells because it is too big, it needs to be broken down first into glucose then the cell can use it to create energy.
Describe in detail the process of Fermentation (Anaerobic) Fermentation is the process of a cell creating ATP from glucose without oxygen. In fermentation, first glucose enters the cell through the cell membrane and reacts with the cytoplasm creating 2 ATP. Two waste products are released in the process, an organ
Describe in detail the process of Respiration (Aerobic) Respiration is the process of a cell creating ATP from glucose with oxygen. In respiration, glucose enters the cell through the cell membrane and reacts with the cytoplasm creating 2 ATP. Only one waste product is created in this process which is carbon d
What is an indicator and give one example that we used in class and how we used it? An indicator is a substance used to show visually a change in the color or presence of another substance. One example we used is iodine. We used iodine to indicate the starch.
How many cells are produced when a cell goes through cell division and what are the new cells called? When a cell goes through cell division, two new daughter cells are produced. The new cells are called daughter cells.
List the reasons why a cell would go through cell division. A cell would go through cell division if its cells need to be replaced, its cells are injured or worn out, or reproduction of single-celled organisms.
Describe interphase. Interphase is a phase in which the cell spends most of its life. During Interphase, the cell will be doing normal things like growing, creating ATP, making proteins, or moving.
Describe prophase Prophase is the before stage of mitosis (pro meaning before). During prophase, DNA will form strands called chromosomes, Centrioles will move to opposite sides of the nucleus, the nuclear membrane also disappears. Long spindle fibers stretch between
Describe metaphase Metaphase (meta meaning middle) is the phase in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
Describe anaphase Anaphase (ana meaning up or away) is the phase in which the fibers shorten and the double chromosomes separate into single chromosomes called chromatids. The chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell. Anaphase looks like a tug of war of chromos
Describe telophase Telophase (telo meaning end) is the phase in which chromosomes reach opposite ands of the cell and the fibers disappear A nuclear envelope forms around each new nucleus The new nuclei are identical to the parent nucleus The cytoplasm and organelles m
Describe cytokinesis Cytokinesis is the process at the end of mitosis or meiosis or after Telophase when the cell pinches in half, bringing about the separation of 2 new daughter cells.
List the 4 phases of mitosis in order. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What is the relationship between the genetic material of the parent cells and the daughter cells? The relationship between the genetic material of the parent cells and the daughter cells is identical. The 2 new daughter cells that are created after mitosis are identical to their parent cells.
What is fertilization? Fertilization is when sperm and eggs combine.
What does haploid mean? Haploid means that a cell has a single set of unpaired chromosomes. During meiosis, cells go through 2 divisions which reduces the number of chromosomes to half (haploid).
What does diploid mean? Diploid means a whole. The sperm and eggs each contribute half the number of chromosomes (haploid) to create a whole (diploid), if they were not half the new organism would have too many chromosomes.
What is a zygote? A zygote is a diploid cell resulting from the combination of two haploid sex cells or gametes.
Describe the process of meiosis and how is it different from mitosis? Meiosis (also known as reduction division) is the form of cell division that occurs in sex cells. Sex cells called gametes are created Cells reduce their number of chromosomes to half MITOSIS Mitosis (cloning) is the cellular process of passing on
What is the elemental symbol for Gold? Also, how many Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons are there in Gold? Au, 79 protons, 118 neutrons, 79 electrons
Describe the differences between the bonding for a molecule of water and a molecule of carbon dioxide. Water is a single bond, carbon dioxide is a double bond
What is the chemical formula, # of components, and the total number of atoms, for glucose and water? Glucose: C6H12O6, 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, 6 oxygen, 24 total atoms. Water: H20 2 hydrogen 1 oxygen, 3 total atoms
What is an organic compound, and please list 2 examples. An organic compound is a compound that contains carbon (usually a combination of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen), relating or derived from living matter, 2 examples are sugars and proteins.
What is an inorganic compound and please list 2 examples. An inorganic compound is a chemical that is not and never was living, 2 examples are salts and water.
The study of genes is called what? The study of genes is called genetics.
Describe the difference between DNA and RNA. RNA copies the pieces of DNA to give the cell instructions about which proteins to make, DNA is the genetic code and makes up chromosomes in the nucleus
Put the following objects in order from largest to smallest, Chromosomes, Cell, DNA, Nucleus, Genes. Cell, nucleus, chromosomes, DNA, genes
What are the two major components of a DNA molecule? The two major components of a DNA molecule are Phosphate and sugar, and nitrogen bases
What is the name of the shape of a DNA molecule? The name of the shape of a DNA molecule is called a “Double Helix”
What are the 5 steps for DNA translation? 1. The DNA strands separate temporarily. 2. RNA nucleotides in the cytoplasm taking their place along the DNA nucleotides, (in RNA, T is replaced with U) 3. RNA nucleotides, in groups of 3, called codons. 4. Each codon will produce 1 of 20 different a
What is heredity? Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring.
Why was Gregor Mendel important to the study on genetics? (What did he do?) Gregor Mendel was an important study on genetics because he designed simple experiments with pea plants to determine how heritable traits were transferred from one generation to the next.
Define a genotype. A genotype is an organism's actual genetic code (Bb)
Define a phenotype. A phenotype is the way genes are expressed and what is seen on the outside.
Define a purebred and what are the 2 different types? A purebred is an organism having 2 identical genes for a trait (BB or bb).
Define a Hybrid. A hybrid is an organism having 2 different genes for a trait (Bb).
Why was Reginald Punnett important to the study on genetics? (What did he do?) Reginald Punnett was important to the study of genetics because he developed the “Punnett square” as a method of predicting the results of a genetic cross (breeding).
Created by: giaspagnolo