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Oceanography

Chapters 6 - 10

QuestionAnswer
The Coriolis Effect a phenomena that causes fluids, like water and air, to curve as they travel across the earths surface
The Coriolis Effect: Wind moves from *pressure* to *pressure*? High to Low
Coriolis: In the southern hemisphere (toward the equator) the wind moves to which direction? Left
Coriolis: In the northern hemisphere (toward the equator) the wind moves to which direction? Right
Onshore Breeze The air over the water moves inland to replace it
Offshore Breeze The air rises over the water, and the air from the land replaces it
Thermocline Transition layer between the top (mix) layer, and denser deep sea (0-1000m) deep. Temperatures decrease rapidly with depth
Halocline the change in salinity with depth
The density of the water increases with depth, the water column from the surface to that depth is_____________ Stable
There is higher density water on top of lower-density water, the water column is__________ Unstable
Thermohaline circulation When water is moved from one location to another it is called continuity of flow. This motion, caused by variations in density due to differences in temperature and salinity.
Areas of thermohaline circulation where water sinks are called_________ Downwelling zones. Downwelling is a mechanism that transports oxygen-rich surface water to the depths where it is needed for deep-living animals.
Areas of rising waters are called_____ Upwelling zones. Upwelling returns low oxygen-content water with dissolved, decay-droduced nutrients to the surface where the nutrients act as fertilizers to promote photosynthesis and the production of more oxygen in the sunlit surface waters.
Pycnocline The area of rapid change in density with depth between the mixed layer and deep layer
If the water column has the same density over depth, it has neutral stability termed ___________ Isopycnal
If water salinity is constant over depth it is termed __________ Isohaline
Wind-driven surface water sets the water immediately below it in motion, because of low-friction coupling in the water, this next deeper later moves more slowly than the surface layer and is deflected to the right or left, for each layer going down Ekman Spiral
The surface layer of water corresponding to the Ekman spiral Ekman Layer
The Ekman spiral extends the depth of approximately________ 100-150m (330-500ft)
Large circular motion, wind-driven current systems Gyres
The 5 major ocean gyres Indian, North Pacific, South Pacific, North Atlantic, South Atlantic
California Current Water that accumulates on the west coast due to westerly currents, flows from north to south along the western coast of North America
Kuroshio Current Water that accumulates on the east coast of japan due to the North Pacific Current, water flows from south to north.
North-south continuity current flowing northward along the coast of North America Gulf Stream
Current moving to the south along the eastern side of the North Atlantic Canary Current
Capillary Waves Wrinkles/ripples
Wave Speed Formual Length of Wave/Wave Period (C=L/T)
Deep water waves D > L/2
Shallow water waves D < L/20
When faster longer waves gradually move through and ahead of slower waves Dispersion
To calculate the speed of a shallow water wave C = 3.13*sqrt(D)
Three types of tides Sedmidiurnal tides (once daily) Diurnal tides (twice daily) Mixed semidiurnal tides (mix)
Minus tide When the low tide level falls below the mean value used as the tidal daytum
Wave speed for large wave C = 1.25 * sqrt(L)
Created by: enduringgrace