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HSA Terms

Carroll County HSA Terms

QuestionAnswer
What do you call a form of government in which a king or Queen or emperor has complete and unlimited power? An absolute monarchy
A program or policy that calls for specific efforts to recruit and hire, promote, admit to school, or award contracts to members of disadvantaged groups (mainly minorities and women)is called Affirmative action
What is an amendment? A change (addition or deletion) made to a document (like the Constitution) after it has taken effect.
A policy of strict segregation and harsh discrimination against people because of their race that was practiced in South Africa from 1948-1994 was called Apartheid
What is an appellate court? A court that hears appeals of a lower court's actions.
Any international agreement that limits the number, types, and use of weapons or weapons system is called Arms control
What were the Articles of Confederation? America's original framework of government from 1781-1789
The chief legal officer in the federal or state government who advises its executive branch on legal matters is called the Attorney General
What is an authoritarian government? A government in which one person rules with the help of a small group of supporters.
What is the meaning of bicameral? It means two chambers or houses when describing a legislative body ( Congress and the Maryland General Assembly are bicameral).
What is a bill? A proposal presented to a legislative body for a law.
What is the Bill of Rights? The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution created by James Madison.
What is a contract? A written agreement between two or more people.
What is a breach of contract? A failure by either party to a legal contract to carry out an obligation required by the contract.
What is a budget? A financial plan that serves as a guide for future spending?
What is a budget deficit? It is the amount by which planned or actual spending exceeds revenue.
What is a budget surplus? It is the amount by which revenue available to pay for budgeted expenses exceeds planned or actual spending.
What is a repeating pattern of economic expansion and contraction over time? It is the business cycle.
What are the heads of the executive departments of a government, who report to and help its chief executive make decisions and policy called? The cabinet
What is a person who seeks elected office called? A candidate
What is a census? A survey conducted by the U.S. government every ten years to count the nation's population; required by the Constitution as a basis for the reapportionment of Congress.
What are checks and balances? A system of overlapping the powers of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government so that each branch. has powers that allow it to block or control actions of the other two branches
What is all law that does not involve criminal matters? Civil law
What are the protections and privileges given to all U.S. citizens by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights? Civil rights
What is a command economy? The government answers all the questions about what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.
What is the common good? That which benefits society as a whole by meeting the needs and wants of the people.
What are generally accepted legal rights and wrongs that have developed over the centuries through legal decisions and traditions rather than from written laws? Common law
What form of government is a confederation? A group of states or nations united for a common purpose. The individual states have most of the power.
What is Congress? A body of delegates or representatives that make the laws. The U.S. Congress consists of the House of Representatives (435) and the U.S. Senate (100).
What does consent of the governed mean? The idea that government must be based on the will of the people.
What is conservation? The preservation of natural resources through reduced and responsible use.
A plan that establishes the structure of a government and the basic rules under which it operates is called a constitution
What is the Consumer price Index (CPI) and what does it measure? A measure of changes over time in the prices of a set list of goods and services. It measures the inflation rate.
What is criminal law? The investigation and trial of those accused of crimes against society.
What do you call the money awarded to a plaintiff in a lawsuit? damages
What is the Declaration of Independence? The 1776 document that proclaimed the American colonies independence from England.
A person who is sued or charged with a crime in a court of law is called the defendant
What is democracy? A form of government in which the power to rule rests with the people, either directly or through their elected representatives.
What is the meaning of the term demographics? Statistics about the characteristics of a human population.
What is a dictatorship? A form of government in which the ruler has absolute power and authority.
What is due process? The right of every citizen to be protected against arbitrary actions by the government.
What is an economic sanction? An economic penalty, such as a limit on trade, that may be placed on a country to pressure it to change its behavior or policy.
What is an economic system? The method used by a society to make decisions about what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.
What are the three basic economic systems? Traditional-Command-Market
What kind of economic system does the United States have? Mixed (Market) System
What are economic wants? Human needs and desires that can be satisfied by consuming goods and services.
What is an elector? A member of the U.S. electoral college, chosen by the voters of each state and D.C. in the general election of a presidential election year.
What is the electoral College? The group of 538 electors who formally elect the President and Vice President.
What is the executive Branch of the government? The part of the government that is responsible for applying, administrating, and enforcing the law.
What is the Federal Reserve System? The central bank of the USA consisting of 12 regional reserve banks and 24 branch banks which control interest rates and the supply of money.
What is the federal Trade Commission? It is a regulatory agency created to oversee business practices in the USA.
What is federalism? A system of government in which power is divided and shared between national, state, and local governments.
What is a felony? A serious crime for which penalties range from large fines to prison terms and execution.
What is fiscal policy? The government's plan to collect and spend tax dollars to promote economic stability.
What is foreign policy? The strategies and goals that guide a country's relations with other countries.
What is free enterprise? The freedom to organize and operate businesses without interference by government. It may also be called capitalism or market system.
What is the General Assembly? The Maryland state legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Delegates.
Who is the governor? The chief executive of a state government.
What is a grand jury? A group of citizens that hears charges against a suspect and decides whether there is enough evidence to bring the person to trial.
What is the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? The total value of all goods and services a country produces in one year.
What is habeas corpus? It is the right fir you to be present in a courtroom to hear the government charges against you.
What is the US House of Representatives? The group of 435 members of one of the two chambers of the US Congress who are elected to two year terms.
What is an indictment? A formal written accusation by a grand jury charging a person with a specific crime.
What is inflation? A rise in the general level of prices for goods and services.
The procedure by which citizens can propose a law by petition and get it on the ballot to be voted on in an election is called an Initiative
What is integration? The process of bringing a group of people into equal standing in society.
What is an interest group? An organized group working to influence government policy. Example: MADD
What is the purpose of the International Red Cross? To protect and assist civilians, war wounded, prisoners, refugees, and other noncombatants in war zones.
What is the International Monetary Fund (IMF)? A banking organization created to promote and maintain international financial stability. It lends money to member countries who need it.
What is the responsibility of the Judicial Branch? To interpret laws and resolve conflicts involving the law.
What is the power of Judicial Review? The power of the Supreme Court to declare a law or act by Congress and/or the President to be unconstitutional.
What is meant by jurisdiction? An area of authority (your teacher's jurisdiction is the classroom).
What is the main power of the Legislative Branch? To make the laws.
What is legislation? The product of what a law-making body does: creates laws and ordinances.
What do we mean by limited government? A system in which the powers of government are restricted and the people have rights that government cannot take away.
What is a lobbyist? A person who represents an interest group and tries to influence legislation supported by that group.
What is majority rule? The idea that the greater number of people should select government officials.
What is a market economy? A free market with minimal government regulation. Buyers and sellers decide what, how, and for whom goods/services will be produced.
What is a misdemeanor? A less serious type of crime than a felony. Punishment may be a fine or a jail term of less than one year.
What is a mixed economy? An economy that uses a combination of traditional, marker, or command economic decision-making.
What is monetary policy? The Federal Reserve System's plan for managing the flow of money and maintaining economic stability.
What is a monopoly? It is one producer of a good and/or service.
What is meant by national debt? The total amount of money owed by a government.
What is national defense? The protection of a country's borders and public security from invasion by a foreign enemy.
What are natural resources? Resources produced by mother nature: land, water, trees, minerals, and animals.
What is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)? A military alliance among the Western Europe, the USA, and Canada.
A system of government in which a small group holds power is called an Oligarchy
What is opportunity cost? What is given up when an economic decision is made (opportunity cost is the opportunity lost).
What does override mean? To set aside a decision that has been made by another authority. Example: Congress can override a Presidential veto.
What is a parliamentary government? A government where power is concentrated in a legislature, which selects from its members the executive (Prime Minister) to lead the government.
A formal statement of demands or grievances of people that requests action from a government is called a Petition
In a civil case the person who brings a lawsuit against another person is called the Plaintiff
What is a political platform? A political party's stand on important issues. Example of issues: taxes, education, gun control.
What is a plea bargain? An agreement between the government (prosecutor) and a criminal defendant in which the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser crime for a lesser punishment.
What is a plurality? In an election involving three or more candidates, the number of votes cast for the winning candidate if this number is NOT a majority of the votes cast.
What is a political party? Any group that seeks to elect government officials under their platform. Example: Republican Party and Democratic Party
What does popular sovereignty mean? Rule by the people
A legal principle that previous court decisions influence judges' rulings in later cases is called a Precedent
What is preponderance of evidence? A standard of proof in civil cases. May be the majority of evidence one has against the other.
The head of the executive branch of the U.S. government is called the President
What is presumption of innocence? The legal principle that a person is assumed innocent in a court of law until the government can prove their case.
Land owned by the government is called Public land
What is reapportionment? Rearranging political representation in a legislature to reflect changes in the population.
What is reasonable doubt? The standard of proof in a criminal case. The evidence must convince the jury "beyond a reasonable doubt" that the defendant committed the crime.
What is a recession? A slowdown in a country's economic activity for at least two consecutive economic quarters (six months).
What is redistricting? The act of creating new boundary lines for legislative districts based on reapportionment.
What is a referendum? The process of submitting laws passed by the legislature to the voters for approval or rejection.
What is a regulatory agency? An independent government agency, such as the FDA or EPA, which issues regulations.
What is a representative democracy? A system of government in which the people elect representatives to govern and pass laws on the people's behalf.
What is a direct democracy? A system of government in which the people vote on all laws.
Land set aside by the U.S. government for use by Native American groups is called a Reservation
What is revenue? The total income of a business or a government.
What is rule of law? The principle that the law applies to government officials as well as to ordinary citizens.
What is scarcity? The condition that results when the demand for a good or service is greater than its supply.
A court order signed by a judge that gives a police officer the authority to search a place and seize certain items as evidence is called a Search Warrant
What is segregation? The separation of a race, class, or ethnic group.
What is the Senate? One of two legislative bodies that make up the U.S. Congress and the Maryland General Assembly.
What is the concept of separation of powers? The division of governmental power among the three branches so that each branch can check the actions of the others.
What is Smart Growth? The law in Maryland that regulates growth to protect natural resources and limit urban decay, urban sprawl, and pollution.
What is statutory law? The body of laws, or statutes,created by the government to promote the public good and welfare.
What is a subpoena? A legal document requiring a person to appear during a trial or to produce requested materials for a trial.
To bring legal proceedings against a person or business is called a Law suit
The right to vote is called Suffrage
What is supply and demand? The interaction between a seller and a buyer that sets the price of a good or service.
Money that individuals and businesses are required to pay to a government is called a Tax
What is a tort? A wrongful act committed against a person or property for which an injured party has the right to sue.
What is a totalitarian government? A government that has dictatorial power over nearly every aspect of people's lives. Example: Nazi Germany, North Korea, Cuba
What is trade? The exchange, purchase, or sale of resources, goods, or services.
What is a traditional economy? An economy in which traditions and customs determine what, how, and for whom goods and services are produced.
What does unconstitutional mean? Contrary (against) to the provisions of a constitution.
What is a unitary form of government? A form of government in which all key powers are held by a single central agency.
What is the United Nations? An international peace-keeping organization that attempts to solve disputes between nations.
What is a veto? The power of the President or Governor to reject legislation.
What is the World Bank? Is a group of international agencies that provide financial aid and advice to developing nations in order to promote economic stability.
What is zoning? The process by which local government manages change and growth in an area by controlling the types of buildings and activities that can exist there.
Created by: rdchiar