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Pediatrics develop.

QuestionAnswer
carribean groups forced kneeling for discipline
yemenite jews garlic to wrists for infectious disease
remedies with lead digestive (mexico), rash/fever (southeast asia), improve eyesight (india)
burning southeast asian, enuresis and temper tantrums
coining vietnamese, disease
cupping steam in cup cools and leaves bruise
childs self concept develops from ideas about his or her social roles
2 things that play a role in childs susceptibility to health problems hered. and socioeconomic
hot and cold imbalance of forces
2 influences on socialization of children peers and school
evil spirits or evil eye supernatural forces
cold weather = sick natural forces
increase in size and number of cells that results in increased size and weight growth
statistical representation of 100 children and each ones placement within the 100 members percentiles of growth
gradual change and expansion development
cephalocaudal head to tail growth
proximodistal near to far (shoulders before hands)
age: preference for one hand 5
sequential trends definite predictable sequence
pace accel and decel patterns of growth; individualized
growth: infancy most rapid; trunk grows faster
growth: preschool to puberty slower; extremities grow faster
growth: puberty to adolescence rapid; trunk grows faster
first teeth to come and go lower central incisors
lymphs adult at 6, then get 2x by 12, then back to adult by 18
neuro 90% by 6 years
words: infants 1-2
words: toddlers 2-3 word sentences
words: school age 5-7
words: preschool 3-4
temperature stabalizes 12 yo
naps: 2yo 2
naps: 3yo 1
naps: 5 yo none
Piaget: 7-11 yo concrete operations (inductive reasoning and beginning logic)
Piaget: 11-15 Formal operations (deductive and abstract reasoning)
able to classify, sort, and order concrete operations 7-11
solve problems in concrete systematic fashion concrete operations 7-11
cognitive development concrete operations
development of conservation concrete operations
4 stages of piaget's cognitive development sensorimotor b-2 preoperational 2-7 concrete operations 7-11 formal operations 11-15
adaptability and flexibility formal operations 11-15
abstract thinking formal operations 11-15
most important influence on growth and development nutrition
Playrooms in hospitals may provide outlet for fears in children. this may be a place where no procedures will happen
Play: onlooker play watching other children play (Infancy)
Play: parallel same toy no interaction (toddler)
Play: associative playing together with no rules or goals (preschool)
Play: cooperative organized with others and has goals and rules (school age)
what play do preschoolers engage in? associative
most prominent feature of emotional deprivation developmental delays
Difficult children 10% highly active irritable irregular habits need structure negative moods
Slow to warm up child 15% unless pressured, adapt slowly inactive moody moderate irregularity
Discipline: reasoning best for older children
Discipline: redirection good for young children
Discipline: strategy of consequences choice with a result of each
dyslalia articulating problems from being pressured to talk too early
at what age group can "reasons for rules" be added into education preschoolers 3-6
what occurs first in boys maturational changes testicular enlargement
what occurs last in boys, right before the decel in growth? nocturnal emissions
what occurs first in girls maturational changes? breast buds
what occurs last in girls right before decel of growth? menstruation (2 yrs after first signs)
what are secondary characteristics the result of hormonal changes
Tanners Stages: initial enlargement of penis length stage 3
Age of development in breast 11-13
Age of development in pubic hair for girls 11-14
Age of development of boys secondary sex characteristics 12-16
Tanners Stages: between what stages does pubic hair begin to appear on the pubis in females between 2 and 3
Tanners Stages: what occurs first in boys testes enlargment, reddening of scrotal sac, long straight downy hair 9.5 to 14 yrs
Tanner Stage: does penis length or diameter growth occur first? length
what are the hormonal changes of puberty hypothalamus > anterior pitu > gonads > sperm/eggs
What causes boys to have a longer growth period in adolescence slower epiphyseal closure
Emotionality adolescent vacillating between adult and child like behavior (NORMAL)
What is Piagets label for adolescence formal operations period -Abstract thinking
Increased understanding of others increases tolerance Piagets formal operations period and abstract thinking in adolescence
All teenagers concerned about what? Am I normal?
What do peers provide to adolescents sense of belonging and feeling of strength and power
TRUE OR FALSE Adolescents may try to manipulate of control parents and have a preference for peers TRUE
Crushes to group dating to single sexual relationships
Intercourse is done by 1/2 of all by what age 18
sex before age ____ could mean abuse? 14
SEX ED for adolescents need for factual info. based on developmental maturity
Dental health for adolescents not as many caries braces in early adolescence need extra hygiene with braces
Tetanus vaccines for adolescents 11-12 yo if 5 years since DTAP q 10 y after that
Personal care for teenagers is focused on? body piercings, sunscreen, personal hygiene (deodorant)
Greatest cause of serious and fatal injuries in teens MVA 60 % male
What is important about sports and adolescents sport fits body type protective gear is worn
Shedding of deciduous teeth to acquisition of permanent teeth at puberty school age or 6-12
Height change rate from 6-12 2 inches per year
At what age do males and females differ little in size 6-10 or until prepubescence
Age + 2 = bladder capacity in ounces
When is the face growing faster than the cranium 6-12
important treat children according to age and not size
avg age of puberty in boys and girls girls 12 and boys 14
what is a strong motivator for school age 6-12 children in gaining independence from parents peers
Developing a sense of industry cooperative, small jobs, independence, participation
Primary goal of middle childhood increasing independence from parents
Inferiority may occur when disabilities, compared to others, skills not able to master
Seeing others viewpoints and agreeing or disagreeing concrete operations of 6-12
Judgements based on reason rather than what is simply seen (Preceptual thinking to conceptual thinking) concrete operations of 6-12 example is the concept of conservation
Conservation is attained at what age 5-7 years (early school age)
Love to classify, sort, and collect concrete operations of 6-12
Positive self concepts leads to feelings of self respect self confidence happiness
Able to understand and accept the concept of treating others as they would like to be treated older school age (6-7 dont understand reasons)
Able to judge an act by the intentions that prompted it what age? older school age
what type of play? rules, team play, ego mastery, groups, clubs, fantasy, physical skill cooperative play
What age is cheating common? 6, they still don't understand why it is wrong
Why do children steal don't understand property rights, revenge, bargaining.... make child take it back and pay
Why do children lie? impress, avoid punishment, meet expectations
bed wetting, regression, head-ache some of the signs of child stress that needs intervention p1163
At what age will children resist going to bed and not know they are tired 8-11
hours of sleep needed by school age 9.5
T/F All children need regular exercise True
what age is eruption of permanent teeth school age 6-12
Assitance with flossing until what age? 8 or 9
ideal time for formal sex education middle childhood
what are normal parental concerns of middle childhood? separation from family, dishonest behavior, school achievement
Safety Education of what age group is directed towards safe play areas and equipment and well supervised sport activities? school age
Primary Prevention Immunizations
Age of discovery and curiosity preschool 3-6
Why are preschoolers more vulnerable to abduction? they are no longer negative or ritualistic and are more eager to please.
The change from the preconceptual phase (2-4) to intuitive thought phase (4-7) occurs when? a shift from total egocentrism to the ability to see others veiws (still some egocentrism)
If A causes B today, then A always causes B Transductive reasoning (preoperational thought 2-7)
Attributing life like quantities to inanimate objects animism (preop thought 2-7)
Inability to conserve preoperational thought 2-7
magical, egocentrism, transductive reasoning, animism are all from? preoperational thought 2-7
egocentric communication for preschoolers play
over 2000 words by what age 5
concept of time not fully understood until 8-9....preschoolers need the time to relate to an event(casuality)
Magical thinking and power of words preschoolers (if told bad, they feel bad)
Poorly defined body boundaries cut=leak out preschoolers
Attachment to opposite sex parent and id with same sex parent; masturbate is COMMON preschool 3-6
what type of play do preschoolers do associative (lots of others, imitative, dramatic, imaginative) discovery and curiosity!
what is associative play play with others but no goals
May have fears (closet under bed) preschoolers
most critical time for developing speech problems 2-4 end of toddlerhood and beginning of preschool
T/F Stuttering/Stammering is normal during preschool and should not be corrected True
difference between nightmares and sleep terrors nightmares-full awakening sleep terror-partial arousal from deep nondreaming sleep
when are sleep problems most common preschool
Safety education can begin at what age? preschool bc they understand reasons for rules!!!!!!!!!!
Long term safety behaviors are started with preschoolers
Kohlbergs Naive Instrumental Orientation concerned with satisfying their own needs and less frequently the needs of others (Preschoolers)
Special concern areas of preschool school, sex ed, stress, fears, speach problems
sex questions find out what child knows and be honest
Created by: wb06