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SLS Microbio CW

SLS Bio 11 Microbiology CW

TermDefinition
Antibody a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
Antigen a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
Host Cell an animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal organism lives.
Lymphocyte a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system.
Lysogenic Cycle Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm.
Lytic Cycle The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane.
Membranous Envelope The viral envelope then fuses with the host's membrane, allowing the capsid and viral genome to enter and infect the host.
Mucous Membrane an epithelial tissue that secretes mucus and that lines many body cavities and tubular organs including the gut and respiratory passages.
Nucleic Acid Core A virion consists of a nucleic acid core, an outer protein coating or capsid, and sometimes an outer envelope made of protein and phospholipid membranes derived from the host cell.
Phagocytic white blood cell phagocytes are white blood cells that break down bacteria and other microorganisms, foreign particles, and cellular debris
Primary line of defence The first line of defence (or outside defence system) includes physical and chemical barriers that are always ready and prepared to defend the body from infection.
Protein Capsid A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. It consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers.
RNA ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins,
Secondary Line of Defence The second line of defense is nonspecific resistance that destroys invaders in a generalized way without targeting specific individuals: Phagocytic cells ingest and destroy all microbes that pass into body tissues
Tertiary Line of Defence A Tertiary Line of Defense is anything like antibodies, antigens, or any invaders that pass through the first and second line of defense.
Viral Specificity A virus infects a specific host: only plants, only animals, only fungus or only bacteria
White Blood Cell a colorless cell that circulates in the blood and body fluids and is involved in counteracting foreign substances and disease; a white (blood) cell.
Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration is the process most living things undergo to use food energy.
Antibiotic a medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
Antiseptic relating to or denoting substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing microorganisms.
Bacteria a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease.
Binary Fission Binary fission ("division in half") is a kind of asexual reproduction. It is the most common form of reproduction in prokaryotes and occurs in some single-celled eukaryotes
Classification the arrangement of animals and plants in taxonomic groups according to their observed similarities (including at least kingdom and phylum in animals, division in plants, and class, order, family, genus, and species).
Conjugation Conjugation is the process by which one bacterium transfers genetic material to another through direct contact.
Disinfectant an agent that frees from infection; especially : a chemical that destroys vegetative forms of harmful microorganisms (as bacteria and fungi) especially on inanimate objects but that may be less effective in destroying spores.
Ecological Role An ecological niche is the role and position a species has in its environment; how it meets its needs for food and shelter, how it survives, and how it reproduces
Fermentation Image result for Fermentation definition biology Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, or alcohol
Motility motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process
Mutate/Mutation a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Photosynthesis the complex process by which carbon dioxide, water, and certain inorganic salts are converted into carbohydrates by green plants, algae, and certain bacteria, using energy from the sun and chlorophyll
Prokaryote A microscopic single-celled organism which has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles, including the bacteria and cyanobacteria
Resistant/Resistance Ability (of an organism, tissue, or cell) to withstand a destructive agent or condition such as a chemical compound, a disease agent, or an environmental stressor: antibiotic resistance; resistance to fungal diseases; drought resistance
Created by: colinwong