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Chapter 3

Cells

TermDefinition
active transport transport process in which solutes move from areas of lesser to greater concentration: requires energy in the form of ATP
cilia hair-like processes on the surface of the cell that propel materials across a surface
cytoplasm the gel-like substance surrounding the nucleus and filling the cell
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) large polymer of nucleotide that carries the genetic information of a cell
diffusion a passive transport mechanism that involves the movement of particles from an area of higher to lower concentraion
endocytosis form of vesicular transport that brings substances into the cell
exocytosis form of vesicular transport that releases substances outside the cell
facilitated diffusion transport process involving the diffusion of a substance through a channel protein
filtration transport process in which water and dissolved particles are forced across a membrane from an area of higher pressure
golgi apparatus prepares proteins and packages them for export to other parts of the body
hydrostatic pressure pressure exerted by water
hypertonic pertains to a solution that contains a higher concentration of solutes compared to the fluid within the cell; the cell will shrink
hypotonic pertains to a solution that contains a lower concentration of solutes compared to the fluid within the cell; the cell will swell
isotonic pertains to a solution in which the concentration of solutes in the solution is the same as the concentration of solutes in the cell; the cell remains the same
microvilli folds of a cell membrane that greatly increases the surface area of a cell to facilitate absorption
mitochondria organelle that converts organic compounds to ATP
mitosis type of cell division in which the "mother" cells split into two identical daughter cells
nucleus the cell's "control center" that contains a complete set of 46 chromosomes
organelles the structure within the cell that performs a specific task in cellular metabolism
osmosis a passive transport mechanism involving the diffusion of water from an area of greater concentration of water and a lesser concentration of solutes to an area of lesser concentration of water and greater concentration of solutes
osmotic pressure water pressure that develops in a solution as a result of osmosis
phagocytosis process in which large particles are trapped in the plasma membrane and brought into the cell
pinocytosis process in which fluid and dissolved particles are trapped in the plasma membrane and brought into the cell
plasma membrane the external boundry of the cell
polymer large molecule consisting of many smaller molecules joined in sequence
ribonucleic acid (RNA) nucleotide that assists in protein synthesis
ribosomes granules of protein and RNA scattered throughout the cytoplasm: some are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
nerve cells long extensions allow these cells to quickly transmit electrical impulses form one part of the body to another
muscle cells elongated, thread-like fibers can shorten to allow body parts to move
red blood cells concave shape allows these cells to bend and squeeze through tiny vessels
gland cells intracellular sacs store and release substances, such as hormones, enzymes, mucus, and sweat
immune cells these cells can recognize and destroy foreign invaders (viruses, fungi, and bacteria). some engulf or destroy foreign cells directly; others manufacture antibodies
selective permeability some substances pass through the membrane while others do not
chromatin thread-like structures composed of DNA and protein
chromosomes rod-like structures that are tightly coiled chromatin
flagella hair-like projection that are thicker and longer than cilia and move with a whip-like motion
sodium-potassium pump regulates the volume of fluid within cells and provides electrical potential for nervous system activity and helps in heat production
Created by: lindstromjPN110