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biology-keystone u2

organic molecules -molecule that always contains carbon and hydrogen -associated with living things
electrons -subatomic particle that has almost no weight and carries a negative charge -orbits in a shell about the nucleus of an atom
covalently bonding chemical bond between atoms that results from the sharing of a pair of electrons
monomers one of the similar or identical molecules of which a polymer is made
polymers a macromolecule made by joining many similar or identical molecules (monomers) through similar or identical bonds
condensation (dehydration) process -joins monomers together -forms water molecules
hydrolysis -polymers are broken down into monomers -uses water in the process -splitting of a covalent bond
carbohydrates -organic compound characterized by the presence of CH20 groups -includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides -quick energy for cell
lipids -organic compound that is insoluble in water -notably fats, oils, and steroids -contain C, H, and a little O
proteins -organic compound that is composed of either one or several polypeptides -used for structure, hormones, or enzymes -contain C,H,O,N and sometimes S
nucleic acids -polymer of nucleotides -contain the genetic information/code of the cell
what is a carbohydrate's monomer? monosaccharide
what is a lipid's monomer? fatty acid (doesn't have on)
what is a protein's monomer? amino acid
what is a nucleic acid's monomer? nucleotide
carbohydrates include... polysaccharides
polysaccharides contain... disaccharides
disaccharides are composed of two... monosaccharides
lipids include... triglycerides
triglycerides are composed of... fatty acids and glycerol
proteins are composed of... peptides
peptides are composed of... amino acids
nucleic acids include... RNA and DNA
RNA and DNA are composed of... nucleotides
high-energy compounds include... ATP
ATP is composed of... nucleotides and phosphate groups
why carbon? -the second most abundant element in living organisms -can share four electrons, it can bond to four additional atoms -establishes covalent bonds (stable, high energy bonds) -has strength, flexibility, and can chemically react to other atoms
which statement correctly describes how carbon's ability to form bonds makes it uniquely suited to form macromolecules? it forms covalent bonds with other carbon atoms
homeostasis -living cells maintain a balance between materials entering and exiting the cell -ability to maintain the balance -it is important for a cell to control internal concentrations of water, glucose, and other nutrients, while eliminating cellular wastes
Created by: amandathornton



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