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Chapter 2

Chemistry of Life

TermDefinition
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stores the energy released from the breakdown of nutrients and provides it to fuel cellular reactions
acid any substance that releases hydrogen ions in solution; pH less than 7
amino acid organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxyl group that are the building blocks of proteins
anabolism the constructive phase of metabolism during which cells use nutrients and energy for growth and repair
anion an ion with a negative electrical charge
atom the smallest part of an element; consist of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an element
atomic weight the number of protons and neutrons added together
base any substance that combines with hydrogen ions' pH greater than 7
carbohydrates group of organic compounds known as starches or sugars that serves as the body's primary source of energy
catabolism phase of metabolism during which complex substances are converted to simpler ones, resulting in the release of chemical energy
cations an ion with a positive electrical charge
compound chemical combination of two or more elements
covalent bonds bond formed between two atoms when the atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
electrolytes a compound that dissociates in water to create a solution capable of conducting electricity
electron minute particle with a negative charge that revolves around the nucleus of an atom
element a substance that cannot be separated into substances different from itself
enzymes substances that change the rate of chemical reactions without being changed themselves
glucose monosaccharide that serves as the primary source of energy for most of the body's cells
hydrogen bond a weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another
ion electrically charged atom
ionic bond bond formed when one atom transfers an electron from its outer shell to another atom
isotope one of a series of chemical elements that have nearly identical chemical properties but different atomic weights and electrical charges; many are radioactive
lipid group of fats characterized by their insolubility in water
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
metabolism the sum of all the chemical reactions in the body
molecule a combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
neutron particle without an electrical charge contained in the nucleus of an atom
pH a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
proteins very large molecules consisting of smaller chemical subunits called amino acids
triglyceride most abundant lipid that functions as a source of energy in the body
energy the capacity to do work; to put matter into motion
potential energy energy that is stored in the bonds of molecules
kinetic energy energy in motion
solution particles of matter dissolved in a more abundant substance; can be a gas, solid, or liquid; particles cannot separate out when allowed to stand.
colloid in the human body thes are mixtures of protein in water; can change from liquid to gel; particles are small enough to stay perminently mixed but large enough so that the mixture is cloudy
suspension contians large particles; if allowed to stand the particles will separate out and settle at the bottom of the container
glycogen the stored form of glucose
monosaccharide contains one sugar unit
disaccharide contains two sugar units
polysaccharides contain many sugar units joined together
starch the form in which plants store polysaccharides; examples are rice, potatoes, and corn; when consumed the digestive enzymes split the starch molecule and release glucose
cellulose humans cannot digest this form of polysaccharide, it supplies fiber in the diet
Created by: lindstromjPN110