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Evolution

Science

QuestionAnswer
Any process of change through time. Evolution.
Any remains or traces of a once living organism. Fossils.
Ways to preserve whole organisms from decay. Trap it in amber, ice, or tar.
What hard parts of an organism can be preserved? Bones, shells, and teeth.
The process by which the body of a dead organism is slowly replaced by dissolved materials. Petrifaction.
Fossils are formed at the bottom of bodies of water in which the sediments gradually settle and cover the bodies of dead organisms. Sedimentation.
What trace of dinosaurs, besides fossils, has been left behind? Footprints.
What traces did worms and burrowing animals leave behind? Tubes and tunnels.
The upper layer contains ____________ and _________ complex organisms. Younger, more.
The lower layer contains _____________ and ____________ complex organisms. Old, less. (Primitive)
Sequence of changes in the complexity and type of organisms. 1. Unicellular 2 Simple multi cellular 3. Complex multi cellular
Illustrates the hypothetical evolution of organisms and their relationships to other species. Phylogenetic trees.
The study of structural similarities and differences among living things. Comparative anatomy.
Structures found in different types of organisms that have the same basic arrangement of parts and a similar embryonic development. Homologous structure.
Examples of homologous structures. Whale flipper and human arm.
Why are the whale's flipper and human's arm homologous structures? Same pattern and number of bones.
Structures found in different types of organisms that are similar function or outward appearance, but are dissimilar in basic structure or embryonic development. Analogous structures.
Examples of analogous structures. Bird and insect wing.
Remnants of structures that were functional in some ancestral form. Vestigial structure.
Examples of vestigial structures. Tailbones, wisdom teeth, appendix.
Embryos of organisms believed to be closely related because they show similar patterns of development. Comparative embryology.
The composition and structure of the biochemical compounds in different species can be compared. Comparative biochemistry.
Examples of comparative biochemistry. Amino acid sequence, hormones, enzymes, proteins, DNA, and blood.
Believed that changes in the species occurred because of a striving of organisms for improvement. Lamark.
Lamark believed that evolution was based on the _________ of an organism. Needs.
The more an animal uses a particular part of its body, the stronger and better it becomes, proposed by Lamark. Law of use and disuse.
Lamark's assumption that a trait acquired during the lifetime of an individual can be transmitted to its offspring. Inheritance of acquired characteristics.
Said acquired characteristics cannot be acquired with the mouse experiment. Weismann.
Said evolution occurred because of natural selection. Charles Darwin.
The idea that organisms with favorable characteristics are better able to survive and reproduce than organisms not as well adapted. Natural selection.
The four steps of Charles Darwin's theory. 1. Overproduction 2. Competition 3. Survival of the fittest 4. Evolution caused by favorable variation
Discovered mutations and proposed that mutations are the source of new traits that permitted evolution to occur. DeVries.
How did DeVries improve Darwin's theory? He explained how variation occurs.
Two populations of the same species may become separated by a geographic barrier like a body of water or a mountain range. Geographic isolation.
Populations of the same species have diverged enough that they can not longer interbreed. Reproductive isolation.
Examples of reproductive isolation. Finches and squirrels.
Examples of evolution in organisms. Moths, bacteria, insects.
Evolution occurs gradually and continuously. Gradualism.
Species remains the same for a long period of time with sudden and brief intervals of change. Punctuated equilibrium.
The hypothesis that the first organic compounds were formed by natural chemical processes on the primitive earth. Heterotroph hypothesis.
According to the heterotroph hypothesis, what were the first types of organisms on earth like? Hetertropic, simple, unicellular, anaerobic, prokaryotes, bacteria.
The original atmosphere had no _____________. Oxygen.
Primitive earth was much ___________ than it is now. Hotter.
Sources of heat of the primitive earth. Lightning, solar radiation, radioactivity.
Sequence of life on earth. 1. heterotrophs 2. anaerobic respiration 3. carbon dioxide 4. autotrophs 5. oxygen 6. aerobic respiration
Created by: emarciante9