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Chapter 1

Orientation to the human body

TermDefinition
anatomy structure of the human body
physiology how the human body functions
organs two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a function
cells smallest living unit in the body
tissues specialized groups of cells with similar structure and function
organ systems groups of organs that contribute to a specific function
epithelial tissue covers or lines body surfaces: outer layer of skin, the walls of capillaries, kidney tubules
connective tissue connects and supports parts of the body: bone, cartilage, adipose tissue
muscle contracts to produce movement: skeletal and heart
nerve tissue generates and transmits impulses to regulate body functions: brain and nerves
integumentary system skin, hair and nails
integumentary system functions protection, temperature, regulation, water retention, and sensation
skeletal system bones, cartilage, ligaments
skeletal system functions protection of body organs, support, movement, blood formation
muscular system skeletal muscles
muscular system functions movement, posture, heat production
lymphatic system lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, lymph, thymus, spleen, tonsils
lymphatic system functions role in fluid balance, production of immune cells, defense against disease
respiratory system nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
respiratory system functions absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid-base balance, speech
urinary system kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
urinary system functions excretion of wastes, regulation of blood volume, regulation of blood pressure, control of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs
nervous system functions control, regulation, and coordination of other systems sensation, memory
endocrine system pituitary gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, thyroid
endocrine system function hormone production, control and regulation of other systems
circulatory system heart, arteries, veins, capillaries
circulatory system functions distribution of oxygen, nutrients, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, immune cells, and antibodies fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance
digestive system stomach, small and large intestines, esophagus, liver, mouth, and pancreas
digestive system functions breakdown and absorption of nutrients elimination of wastes
male reproductive system testes, vas deferens, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penis
male reproductive system functions production and delivery of sperm secretion of sex hormones
female reproductive system ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, breasts
female reproductive system functions production of eggs site of fertilization site of fetal development birth lactation secretion of sex hormones
medial toward the body's midline
lateral away from the body's midline
distal farthest from the point of origin
proximal closest to the point of origin
Superior above
anterior toward the front of the body
ventral toward the front of the body
posterior toward the back of the body
dorsal toward the back of the body
superficial at or near the body's surface
deep away from the body's surface
inferior below
anatomical position standing erect, arms at the sides, with face, palms and feet facing forward
sagittal plane divides the body lengthwise into right and left sides
transverse plane divides the body horizontally into the upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions
frontal plane divides the body lengthwise into anterior and posterior portions
What are the two major body cavities? dorsal and ventral
ventral cavity located at the front of the body: contains the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities that are separated by the diaphragm
thoracic cavity surrounded by the ribs and chest muscles: contains the heart, large vessels of the heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and lungs
abdominopelvic cavity divided into the abdominal and pelvic cavities
abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum
homeostasis the ability of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment despite changes in external conditions
receptor receives information about a change in the environment
control center receives and processes information from the receptor
effector responds to signals from the control center by either opposing or enhancing the stimulus
negative feedback when the effector opposes the stimulus and reverses the direction of change
positive feedback when the effector enhances the stimulus and amplifies the direction of change
dorsal cavity located at the back of the body: contains the cranial and spinal cavities
organelle metabolic units within a cell that perform a specific function necessary to the life of the cell
Created by: lindstromjPN110