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Med Surg II


What is the number one reason people don't go to the doctor? Fear
What are the most common sites that men get cancer? Prostate, lung, colon, and rectum
What are the most common sites that women get cancer? Breast, lung, colon, and rectum
What is carcinogenesis? Process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells
What are the primary ways to prevent cancer? Smoking cessation, eat healthy diet, exercise regulary
What is a food that is high in antioxidants? Berries
How much exercise is recommended? 20 min/day
What age is it recommended that men start to have the PSA test done? 50
What age is it recommended that women start getting mammograms done? 40
What are the risk factors for cancer? Chronic skin irritations, smoking, diet, UV exposure, environmental carcinogens, chemical carcinogens, heavy alcohol use, heredity, and age (55 and over), African Americans more than any other race
What are the s/s for testicular cancer? Stomach ache, back ache, breast enlargement, heaving feeling in scrotum, and swelling
What is the procedure that is done after PSA screening comes back elevated? Transrectal ultrasound
How often do men & women get colonoscopies? Age 50 and every 5 years
What are the 7 signs of cancer? Change in bowel/bladder habits, A sore throat, Unusual bleeding/discharge, Thickening/lump in breast or elsewhere, Indigestion/difficulty swallowing, Obvious changes in moles/warts, Nagging cough/hoarseness
Neoplasm New growth - abnormal or uncontrolled growth
Benign Not recurrent or progressive
Malignant Abnormal cell growth with a loss of normal role and function
Tumor A growth; may be local or invasive
Metastasis The process by which tumor cells spread from the primary site to a secondary site
Immunosurveillance The immune system's recognition and destruction of newly developed abnormal cells
What does a T cell do? Recognizes and destroys
What are the characteristics of malignant cells? Rapid growth, irregular, rarely contained with capsule, capable of metastasis, little resemblance to parent tissue
What are the types of malignancies? Carcinoma, Sarcoma, lymphoma and leukemia
Carcinoma Malignant tumors composed of epithelial cells
Sarcoma Malignant tumors of connective tissue
Lymphoma & Leukemia Malignant tumors that originate from the hematopoietic system
Mutation As cells divide, sometimes errors in the genetic code occur
How does chemo work? Interfering with DNA replication
T Tumor size
N Degree of regional spread to the lymph nodesq
M Metastasis
T4, N3, M2 Large tumor with three lymph nodes involved that has spread to other parts of the body
Biopsy Removal of a small piece of living tissue from an organ or other part of the body for microscopic examination
Excisional Biopsy Removal of the complete lesion, with little or no margin of surrounding normal tissue removed; polypectomy
Incisional Biopsy Removal of a portion of tissue for examination, such as the bite biopsy
What is a ND for chemotherapy? Risk for infection
What is it called if a persons white blood count is less than 4000? Leukopenia
What is stomatitis? Inflammation of the oral mucosa, is one of the most common complications of chemo and can lead to severe swallowing problems and system infections (may lead to anorexia)
What do you teach about mouth care? Encourage soft bristle toothbrush, rinse mouth with normal saline or sodium bicarbonate solution q 2-4hr
What is the second leading cause of death is the US? Cancer
What is an oncologic emergency with rapid lysis of malignant cells? Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS)
What can TLS lead to? Hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, and hypcocalcemia (electrolyte imbalances)
What is the medical management for TLS? Hydration, diuretics, allopuinol, sodium bicarbonate, and calcium gluconate
What is the treatment when hydration, diuretics, sodium bicarbonate fail to treat TLS? Dialysis
How long does it take for TLS to resolve? 7 days once treatment is initiated
Who determines the patients pain level? Patient - it is whatever the patient says it is
How often do you give pain meds for a patient with cancer? Around the clock, more often for breakthrough pain
What do you encourage for multiple myeloma? Fluids
When do you give Reglan? 30 mins prior to meals
What is the patient teaching for thrombocytopenia? Soft toothbrush, keep mouth clean, avoid intrusions into the rectum, use electric shaver, avoid activities that can promote bleeding
Created by: tandkhopkins