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Genetics

This study stack includes terminology for Mendelian Genetics.

QuestionAnswer
homozygous 2 of the same allele (AA, aa)
Heterozygous 2 different alleles (Aa)
Dominant this allele shows up (A)
Recessive this allele can be hidden (a)
Genotype the genetic make up (Aa, aa, AA)
Phenotype physical appearance (i.e. hair color)
traits Characteristics that are inherited
alleles Different forms of a gene
Punnett square A diagram for predicting the allele composition of offspring from a cross between individuals of known genetic makeup.
Incomplete dominance A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
Codominance A condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
Multiple alleles A gene that has more than two alleles
mutation a change in a DNA sequence
silent mutation point mutation that does not change the resulting protein (change in a base, but no change in protein function)
missense mutation point mutation that changes one amino acid in the resulting protein
nonsense mutation point mutation that inserts a stop codon and shortens the resulting protein
frame-shift mutation changes how bases are grouped into codons, or the reading frame of the gene
chromosomal deletion chromosomal mutation that removes a large segment of genetic material
chromosomal duplication mutation that causes genes to be repeated on the same chromosome
chromosomal inversion mutation that flips the order of genes on a chromosome
Created by: kmaddix