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SJC S3 Midcurriculum Exam Review

Velocity (formula) v=d/t
Speed of light 3 x 10^8 meters/second or 186,000 miles/second
Acceleration (formula) a=v(f) - v(o) / time •v(f) = final velocity •v(o) = initial velocity
weight (formula) mg X 9.8meters/second (mass in mg X acceleration of gravity on Earth)
work (formula) W = Fd
power (formula) P = W/time or Fd/time
Radiation (definition) The transfer of energy
Ionizing Radiation (definition) any type of energy that is capable of removing an orbital electron from matter it interacts with
Covalent Bond Sharing of valence electrons
Ionic Bond One atom gives up it's valence electron(s) to another, causing each atom to become oppositely charged, and immediately attracted to each other
Atomic Mass Number Number of Nucleons
Atomic Mass Neutrons + protons (mass estimate since electrons only marginally affect mass)
Range at which COHERENT SCATTERING can occur <10 keV - contributes to fog (barely)
Range at which COMPTON SCATTERING can occur ANY keV - contributes to fog and patient dose
Range at which PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT can occur 30-150 keV - depends on Atomic #, contributes to patient dose
Range at which PAIR PRODUCTION can occur >/= 1.022 MeV - does not occur in diagnostic radiography range
Range at which PHOTODISINTEGRATION can occur > ~10 MeV - does not occur in diagnostic radiography range
Differential Absorption (definition) Process where some of the x-ray beam is absorbed in tissue and some is transmitted through the anatomic part
Beam Attenuation (definition) The reduction in intensity (energy) or number of photons of the primary beam as it passes through the patient due to absorption and scatter
Factors affecting Beam Attenuation •tissue thickness •types of tissue •beam quality (kVp) •transmission
Spatial Resolution (definition) the smallest object that can be detected in an image - sharp lines -line pairs/mm
Contrast Resolution (definition) the ability of the IR to distinguish between levels of grey
Digital: Quantum ______ • Film: Quantum ______ Digital: Quantum Noise • Film: Quantum Mottle - Not enough photons to complete the image
Image Artifact Any unwanted image on a radiograph - dust on IR, foreign body, clothing, scatter/fog
Dynamic range is more limited in _______ (film or digital)? Film - more sensitive to repeats due to exposure
Factors affecting Radiographic Quality •VISIBILITY (of anatomic structures): contrast and brightness •SHARPNESS (accuracy of structural lines): spatial resolution and distortion
X-ray interactions in the tube Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic
Scatter control methods 1. optimum kVp 2. field size control 3. scatter absorbing grids 4. air-gap technique
Factors that determine Quantity of scatter 1. kVp 2. field size 3. patient thickness
Types of Grid Designs/Patterns 1. Linear 2. cross-hatched 3. focused
Grid Radius of a Focused Grid Distance from the face of the grid to the point of conversion of the lead strips (determines focal distance range)
Grid Frequency of a Focused Grid number of lead strips per centimeter, 25-80/cm or 63-200/inch
Contrast Improvement Factor (k) of a Focused Grid k = Contrast with grid / contrast without grid
Selectivity of a Focused Grid the ratio of primary to transmitted scattered radiation. "ability to clean up" - more scatter removal = greater selectivity
Focal Range of a Focused Grid Recommended SID range to use with a focused grid. commonly 36-42 or 66-74"
Created by: paigeduh