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Earth Science Exam

QuestionAnswer
About 97 percent of the water is _______? salt water
A _____ is the area of land that is drained by a river system,stream,river or floodplain watershed
______ is a measure of the cloudiness of water caused by suspended solids turbidity
Transpiration is when ____ gives off water vapor into the air plant
The sediments carried by a stream are referred to as the stream's _____? load
The slope of a stream is called its _____? gradient
What is the maximum load a stream can carry called? its capacity
When do streams and rivers deposit their sediment? when their velocity decreases
What is the name of a layer of sediment/rock that does not let water pass through? aquiclude
What is an underground formation that contains groundwater? aquifer
A measure of how easily liquids pass and gasses pass through a soil or rock is______ permeability
Where is ground water located? zone of saturation
Which rock would form the best aquifer? sandstone with high porosity and high permeability
What is tidal range? the difference between high and low tide
Micro-organisms in the ocean that produce half the world's oxygen are _____? phytoplankton
The rising of deep cold currents to the ocean surface is called ____? upwelling
The very large array is a _____ telescope that gathers low frequency EMR radio
The (non tectonic) mountains on the moon's surface are called_____? highlands
What phase of the Moon follows after the waxing gibbous? full moon
Who was the first human to set foot on the Moon? Armstrong
The moon exerts a greater influence on tides than the sun because the moon_____? is closer to the earth than the sun
How many rotations on its axis does the moon make during 1 orbit of the earth? 1
The _____ theory hypothesizes that the moon formed when theia crashed into earth. Giant impact
The moon makes exactly one complete (360) orbit around earth in a _______ month sidereal
Why do the sun and moon appear to be the same size? the sun is further away from the earth than the moon is
Earth's axis tilts with respect to Earth's orbit at an angle of ______ causing seasons. 23.5
The moon's orbit is an eclipse, not a circle,. It is nearest Earth at a point called the. perigee
Largest high tides that occur during full moon phases are called______ tides spring
During what year did the first person land on the moon? 1969
What is the order during a solar eclipse? Sun, Moon, Earth
The first person to use a telescope for astronomy was_____? Galilei
The moon goes through one complete cycle of phases(New to New) every_____? 29.5 days
Where is the sun directly(90) overhead on the summer solstice for the U.S.? Tropic of Cancer
The moon shines by reflecting sunlight. It's reflectivity(7%) is referred to as______? albedo
The force of gravity on the moon is about_______ the force of gravity on earth. one sixth
When the moon is in Earth's umbra a ______ eclipse occurs total lunar
The vernal equinox is closest to which date? March 21
During what year is the next total solar eclipse in NC? 2017
What quantity is measured in milliliters? volume
How close a measurement is to the actual, exact value is referred to as_____? accuracy
Which component of the scientific method involves the gathering of facts? observing
A broad explanation for the cause of a mathematical pattern in nature is a ____? theory
A testable, possible solution to a scientific problem(based on observation) is an _______? hypothesis
In solving a problem by the scientific method, the best first step is_____? Define the problem by asking a question
Which branch of Earth science studies weather and other atmospheric phenomena? meteorology
A description of a pattern in nature, often in math form, is a scientific______? law
Hannah wants to learn more about the feeding habits of ants. In what order should the steps occur that Hannah takes in order to best study the patterns of ants? form hypothesis, conduct an experiment, record data, make a conclusion
A measure of the amount of matter in an object is called_______? mass
Which of the following is NOT a part of a well-designed experiment? many variables manipulated
Which is the abbreviation for the prefix meaning "one thousandth" (0.001)? m
The SI system is considered to be a better choice for science (class) measurement than the english system for several reasons. Which of these is NOT correct? The SI system makes it more difficult to convert units than the English system.
The two things must all measurements have in order to be clear(and get full credit)? number and unit value
On which temp scale is the boiling point of water 100? Celcius
The curved surface of water in a glass graduated cylinder is called_____? meniscus
Which of the following units is largest? 1kg
Which is the abbreviation for the prefix meaning "one hundredth"(0.01) c
Most actual volcanoes are found along or near______ subduction boundaries convergent
Which rock bes represents the composition of Earth's oceanic crust? basalt
The point on the earth's surface directly above the location at which an earthquake begins is known as the ______? epicenter
Which layer(zone) of earth is made of liquid iron and nickel outer core
What is the most likely to be found around an oceanic trench? folded mountains
An ______ outlines crust formed at the same time on either side of a mid-ocean ridge. isochron
A volcano that is formed partly by explosive eruptions of ash and rock fragments and partly by fluid lava flows is usually a potentially explosive________ volcano composite/strato-
A very large bowl-shaped crater, often a mile or more across,formed by the collapse of an underground (emptied) magma chamber, is called a ________? caldera
Creation of new ocean crust by upwelling of magma occurs at_____? mid-ocean ridges
The bulk of the hawaiian islands are large, gently sloping ___________ volcanoes with round bases. shield
Where would you find long fissures that produce pillow lavas? About 2/3 of all extrusive volcanism occurs in these regions. mid-ocean ridges
What stratovolcano erupted in 1980, causing great destruction in Washington state? Mt. Saint Helens
Generally, how does the age of continental crust compare to oceanic crust? older than oceanic
The ring of fire refers to volcanoes surrounding the _________ ocean Pacific
Which of these is not a main reason why the earth's interior is hot? heat from the sun absorbed into earth's interior
The deadliest aspect of a volcanic eruption(speeds up to 450 mph) is a _________ flow pyroclastic
What popular scale rates earthquakes by the amplitude of their largest waves? the Richter scale
Seismic earthquake waves originate(start) and move outward from the ______? focus
Which feature forms along a continental-continental convergent boundary? folded mountains
Denser tectonic plates sink back into mantle and are melted/recycled during? subduction
Earthquake waves arrive at seismic stations in what order? P-waves,then S-waves. then surface waves
Which is NOT a correct statement about earthquake's registering 5.0 and 6.0 on the Richter scale? The seismic waves of the 6.0 earthquake move faster, arriving sooner
Which is NOT a method for making buildings more earthquake resistant? building with stone and brick
___________ is the name of the single continent that broke up about 200 million years ago. Pangea
What process created deep-sea trenches? subduction
A ___ projection has parallel lines of latitude and longitude, but distorts at poles. Mercator
On a topographic map, toward which do the hachures on some contour lines? lower elevations
Zero longitude is also known as the ____? Prime meridean
The difference in elevation between contour lines on a topographic map is the ____? contour interval
Darker lines with numbers are called ________ intervals. index
Which requires information from 3 satellites to find location on earth's surface? GPS
Total relief on a topographic map is defined as________? the difference between the highest and lowest point shown
On the opposite side of the Prime Meridian is _________? The international date line
What is another name for lines of longitude? meridians
What continent is the smallest? Australlia
What is the largest and deepest ocean? Pacific
What ocean lies off the east coast of North Carolina? Atlantic
A _______ is a distinct layer within a cross section of Earth's soil surface horizon
Which agent of erosion is responsible for U-shaped valleys like those in Yosemite? glaciers
What is not a primary contributor to rate of weathering of rock and formation of soil? wind direction
Which two soil horizons are collectively referred to as topsoil? OandA
Frost(or ice) wedging primarily relies on which processes? freezing and thawing
In which soil horizon is humus and microscopic life most concentrates? O
Which is not considered a factor in the process of sol formation? human construction projects
Which is the primary(more important) factor affecting rate? climate
Which of the following is a type/cause of chemical weathering? oxygen/oxidation
What sediment is in the top layer which settles last? clay
Which of these is the pH closest to that of normal rain in the environment? 5.5
Which type of rock is most chemically weathered y the pH of normal rainfall? limestone
Which mass movement causes vertical objects(poles,trees) to slowly lean downhill? creep
Acid precipitation is more acidic than normal. It forms as the result of moisture interacting with oxides produced by the _________? burning of fossil fuels
Which of these is NOT an evidence of glacier erosion? loess sediments
Order of the breakdown of rocks? weathering, erosion, depostion
In which region is chemical weathering most rapid? warm, moist
Soil is a mixture of ______? decayed organic matter and oxygen
An igneous rock that forms by fast cooling has ______? fine grains
Which term describes igneous rocks that crystallize inside Earth? intrusive
Which process is not involved in the lithification of clastic sedimentary rock? precipitation
Limestone from shell/skeletal fragments of marine animals is______ sedimentary rock. biochemical
Which best describes graded bedding layers in sedimentary rocks? fine to coarse
The most important component of rocks in Earth's crust is silica. What is the chemical formula and mineral name of silica? SIO2, quartz
When clastic sediments carried by water finally settle to the bottom, this is _______? deposition
Which agent of erosion can usually only move small particles? wind
Heat and pressure are the agents of which process? metamorphism
By what process are rock materials removed and transported to another location? erosion
A metamorphic rock with a foliated texture has minerals grains that are? flattened and lined up perpendicular to pressure applied
Mountain building where tectonic plates collide can result in which of these? regional metamorphism
A model which suggested that the sun was at the center of the universe and everything revolved around it is called a _______model. heliocentric
Who first published a heliocentric model of the universe/solar system(on his death bed)? Copernicus
Which of these instruments can an astronomer use to see objects from far away? telescope
The path an object takes as it revolves around another object in space is called an_______? orbit
According to Kepler's 1st law, the orbits of planets have an ______ shape? elliptical
According to Kepler's 2nd law, a line drawn from a planet to the sun sweeps out equal _______ in equal amount of time. areas
According to Kepler's 3rd law, the ratio of the squares of the periods for two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances. The period of a planet is the time for one ________? orbit of the sun
What is the point on its orbit where a planet is farthest from the Sun and moves slowest? aphelion
Earth is kept in orbit around the sun by________? the sun's gravity
The strength of gravity depends on what two factors? mass and distance
The asteroid belt located in space between _______ and _______. Mars and Jupiter
Which does not correctly complete this phrase: In our solar system, all planets____________? move at the same orbital speed
Which planet has the most volcanoes and is closest to earth's size? Venus
Which planet has two moons and is the best candidate for extraterrestrial life? Mars
How many planets are classified as terrestrial? gas giants(or Jovian)? T:4 G:4
How many electrons can fit in the first energy level? 2
The vertical rows on the periodic table are called ________? groups
Which is not a characteristic of minerals? organic contains carbon was once living
Which mineral formation method involves evaporation of water, leaving once-dissolved matter deposited as minerals(often in caves)? precipitation
Which mineral group is the largest (over 60% of earth's crust)? silicates
What mineral group is the second largest and contains minerals like calcite? carbonates
What is the hardest mineral on the Mohs scale? It is rated 10. diamond
If a mineral breaks along flat or even surfaces, it has _______? cleavage
Relative dating of geologic time is based on the concept that earth's past processes are similar to those of today.This principle is called______? uniformitarianism
Calculating the age of rock ny measuring the amounts of parent and daughter isotopes present and knowing half-life of the parent isotope is _____? radiometric dating
What radioisotope is most useful for measuring the age of remains of plants or animals that died within the last 50,000 years? carbon-14
Which dating method gives only a relative age for geologic time? rock layer sequences
A fossilized dinosaur print is an example of an ________ fossil cast
The principle of Inclusion explains why the use of radioisotopes and half-lives for determining age is not valid for________ rocks sedimentary
The largest division of geologic time is an _____? eon
Created by: Gcrumpler