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# EBP Chapter 6 M4

### Formulating Hypotheses and Research Questions

TermDefinition
Complex hypothesis A statement explaining and/or predicting relationships between two or more independent and dependent variables
Dependent variable A variable that is observed for changes or to assess the possible effect of a treatment or manipulation; may be the effect or outcome of an experimental procedure; also referred to as a criterion or outcome variable. Usually symbolized by the letter Y
Directional hypothesis A hypothesis that makes a specific prediction about the direction of the relationship between two variables
Extraneous variable A variable that is not controlled for in a study, threatening the internal validity of the study. Can affect your outcome without you wanting it to
Hypothesis A statement about the relationship between the variables that are being investigated
Independent variable A variable that is manipulated and controlled by the researcher; also called a predictor variable. Usually symbolized by the letter X. This is what is changed! Affects the dependent variable
Nondirectional hypothesis A hypothesis that does not stipulate in advance the direction and nature of the relationship between two variables
Null hypothesis (H) A hypothesis stating that no relationship or difference exists between two variables. Also called statistical hypothesis
Research hypothesis (H1 or Ha) A hypothesis stating a relationship or difference between two variables. Also called an alternative, declarative, or scientific hypothesis
Research Questions A concise, interrogative statement written in the present tense including one or more variables
Simple hypothesis A statement explaining and/or predicting a relationship between one independent and one dependent variable
Variable A measurable characteristic that varies among the subjects being studied
Operational Definition Further describes the variables, to make it more clear. Ex: When you say "lung function", what exactly are you talking about? Expansion? Etc. This is so everybody knows what the terms mean
Purpose Statement Explains why the study is being done (the reason, the purpose)
Created by: jessmgar