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geology Final

QuestionAnswer
Super Position Sequence of layers, oldest at the bottom, youngest at the top Cross Cutting
Cross Cutting Anything that cuts a sequence of rock is younger then the sequence it cuts.
Divergent boundaries typically initiates within a continent, two plates move apart from each other, a narrow valley is formed. fissures extend into a magma chamber. magma flows into the fissures may errupt. and when the magma cools, it becomes igneous rock. new crust
Convergent Boundarie plates move towards each other. Ocean Continent Convergence: creates volcanoes and when magma erupts into the surface it becomes extrusive rocks if it solifies in the crust it becomes intrusive rocks
Transform Boundaries Two plates slide horizontally past each other, creating earthquakes
Difference of lithosphere and asthensophere? Lithosphere is rigged, located at the crust and uppermost part of the mantle, its cold and dense it usually sinks down. Asthenosphere is plastic located below the lithosphere mid-upper mantle
how are sedimentary rocks formed? weathering, erosion, or deposition from weather
how are igneous rock formed? melting + cooling
how are metamophic rocks formed? heat + pressure
Describe felsic rocks? color? silica content? viscosity/ violenece? phaneritic rock (intrusive)? extrusive rock (aphaniritic) color: light color .... silica content: 65-75% .... viscocity/violence: very high.... phaneritic rock: granite .... extrusive rock: rhyolite
Describe mafic rocks? color? silica content? viscosity/ violenece? phaneritic rock (intrusive)? extrusive rock (aphaniritic) color: dark .... silica content: 45-50% .... viscocity/violence: low.... phaneritic rock: gabbro .... extrusive rock: basalt
relationship between silica content, viscosity, and violence. How does each effect each thing the more violence the more viscocity it has and the more viscosity it has then the higher the silica the less violence the less viscocity it has and the less viscosity it has then the lower the silica
composition of continental crust? mostly ultramafic material: periodtite
composition of oceanic crust? mostly igneous rock: basalt
what is weathering? destructive process that will, change the rock physically or chemically. 2 types of weathering chemical and mechanical. (breakdown)
what is erosion? initial removal of weathered material. (removal)
what is chemical weathering? chemical weathering is decomposition due to attack by elements in air and water. Carbonic acid in rainfall, the dominant agent of chemical weathering,
how carbonic acid is formed and its role in solution and hydrolysis? Carbonic acid in rainfall, Carbonic acid slowly but completely dissolves calcite/limestone, carrying away ions in solution and leaving behind holes.
what are the 4 products of chemical weathering? iron oxide (extremely stable), ions (non solids), clay (microscoppic real absorbant), quartz (not effected by chemical weathering)
detrital rocks and grain sizes from largest to smallest. gravel larger 2mm(breccia), sand (quartz sandstone) 1/16-2mm, silt (siltstone)not visible grains 1/256-1/16, clay (shale) 1/256
what is limestone composed of? calcite
how grain size and rounding change with transport? the farther it travels the smaller the grain size and the rounder the rock, the closer it is from starting point then the bigger the grain size and sharper edges.
what is regional metamorphsim? Regional metamorphism involves tectonic stress aligning minerals into foliation, producing a sequence of shale->phyllite->schist->gneiss as temperature and pressure increase.
what is contact metamorphism? Contact metamorphism involves the heat from a magma body baking shale into hornfels, sandstone into quartzite, and limestone into marble. does not affect large areas (non foliated) result in high temperature.
how gradient affects velocity high gradient high velocity erosion and transport, drop in gradient drop in velocity, deposition
different ways in which a stream transports sediment bed load, suspended load, and dissolved load
what is suspended load silt and clay spend most of their time suspended above the bed
what is dissolved load soludable products of chemical weathering usually invisible
what is bed load sand and gravel spend most of their time on the stream bed
what is downcutting deepening of the valley by erosion of a stream bed
what is base level? sea level rise or drop, tectonic upift. Base level drops renewed downcutting. base level rises lateral erosion
what is recurrence interval? average time between floods of a given discharge
what is porosity? the ability of a rock to hold water. a simple percentage, how much of the rock is actually rock.
what is permeability? how easily water can go through the rock. the ability to transmit water.
what are the subsurface groundwater zones? water table, saturated zone, unsaturated zone, confined aquifer, unconfined aquifer
three necessary elements to make a cave? soluble rock (gypsum, dolomite,limestone), groundwater pressure, and fractures
What is the dominant agent of land sculpture in deserts? running water
What is the dominant rock structure (orientation) in the Colorado Plateau? streams erode the horizontal rock,result is horizontal-top landforms, such as buttes/mesas and plateaus, separated by canyons
Created by: sanchezdaniel