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Cell Division

Keystone Anchor BIO.B.1 Cell Growth and Reproduction

cell cycle life cycle of the cell; G1, S. G2 (DNA replication occurs in the S phase)
allele an alternate form of a gene
crossing over An exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis; contributes to the genetic variability in gametes and ultimately in offspring
gamete A specialized cell (egg or sperm) used in sexual reproduction containing half the normal number of chromosomes of a somatic cell
meiosis A two‐phase nuclear division that results in the eventual production of gametes with half the normal number of chromosomes
mitosis A nuclear division resulting in the production of two somatic cells having the same genetic complement as the original cell
DNA replication The process in which DNA makes a duplicate copy of itself
chromosome A thread-like, gene carrying structure found in the nucleus; Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
cytokinesis final phase of the cell cycle during which the cytoplasm divides in two
prophase nuclear membrane breaks down; DNA molecules coil up, making chromosomes condense
metaphase centrioles produce spindles which attach to the centromeres; chromatids line up along the middle
anaphase spindle fibers pull chromatids away from the center to opposites poles of the cell
telophase new nuclear membranes form around the newly separated chromosomes
propphase I nuclear membrane breaks down; homologous chromosomes pair up; crossing over occurs
metaphase I spindles attach to the centromeres of the sister chromatids; sister chromatids line up along the middle of the cell
anaphase I pairs of homologous chromosomes are pulled away to opposite poles of the cell (sister chromatids remain attached, unlike mitosis)
telophase I two cells form
prophase II chromosomes condense again; new spindles form
metaphase II spindles attach to centromeres of the sister chromatids; chromatids line up along the middle of the cell
anaphase II sister chromatids are pulled away from the center to opposite poles of the cell
telophase II nuclear membranes form; now have 4 genetically different, haploid (half the number of chromosomes) cells
haploid half the number of chromosomes
diploid full set of chromosomes
Created by: kmaddix