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12.1-12.3

TermDefinition
Astronomy The branch of science that deals with celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as a whole.
Axis An imaginary line about which a body rotates.
Rotation The action of rotating around an axis or center.
Revolution A forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system.
Orbit The curved path of a celestial object or spacecraft around a star, planet, or moon, especially a periodic elliptical revolution.
Solstice Either of the two times in the year, the summer solstice and the winter solstice, when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.
Equinox The time or date (twice each year) at which the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length (about September 22 and March 20).
Gravity The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass. For most purposes Newton's laws of gravity apply, with minor modifications to take the general theory of relativity into account.
Law of Universal Gravitation A particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Mass A coherent, typically large body of matter with no definite shape.
Weight A body's relative mass or the quantity of matter contained by it, giving rise to a downward force; the heaviness of a person or thing.
Inertia A tendency to do nothing or to remain unchanged.
Newton’s First Law of Motion An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Phase A distinct period or stage in a process of change or forming part of something's development.
Eclipses An obscuring of the light from one celestial body by the passage of another between it and the observer or between it and its source of illumination.
Solar Eclipse An eclipse in which the sun is obscured by the moon.
Umbra The fully shaded inner region of a shadow cast by an opaque object, especially the area on the earth or moon experiencing the total phase of an eclipse.
Penumbra The partially shaded outer region of the shadow cast by an opaque object.
Lunar Eclipse An eclipse in which the moon appears darkened as it passes into the earth's shadow.
Created by: R1chard