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Innate Immunity

Microbiology 14

QuestionAnswer
What word means "protection from disease" Immunity
Which immunity is a non-specific response to injury and infection? Innate Immunity
Give examples of innate immunity: Skin, mucus membranes, phagocytosis.
Which immunity is specific to antigen on a pathogen? It involves antibody production and memory. Adaptive Immunity
How is adaptive immunity acquired? Exposure to pathogen.
What is a disease causing agent? Pathogen
Fluid portion of the blood - an aqueous solution of minerals, salts, proteins and other organic substances. Serum
Fluid portion of the blood that contains clotting agents (such as fibrinogen and prothrombin) Plasma
Where do cells arise from? Stem cells in bone marrow.
What are leukocytes? White blood cells.
Which leukocytes are involved in innate immunity? (6) Basophils, mast cells, eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages and Natural killer cells (NK).
Which leukocytes are involved in adaptive immunity? (4) Lymphocytes B and T, monocytes, and macrophages.
What is the fluid contained within the lymphatic system? Lymph (meaning water)
What are 4 aspects of lymph? 1. Formed from interstitial/tissue fluid. 2. Plasma filtered into interstitium. 3. Not all filtered fluid is absorbed back into blood. 4. Excess filtered fluid is picked up by lymphatic vessels.
What does the primary lymphoid tissues consist of? Bone marrow and Thymus (lies behind the breast bone)
What happens in the primary lymphoid tissues? T and B lymphocytes form/mature.
What is the 3-step response initiated by the immune system in response to a pathogen? 1. Recognition phase (distinguish between normal/host and foreign). 2. Activation Phase (Immune cells mobilized to fight invader). 3. Effector phase (mobilized cells attempt to eliminate foreign cells/particles).
What is a PAMP? Pathogen-associated molecular pattern.
Where are PAMPs present? Present on foreign but not host (self) cells.
PAMPs include molecular structures such as ________________ and ______________. LPS (on gram negative cell walls) and peptidoglycan (on gram positive cell walls).
PAMPs are recognized by what? Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRR)
Give an example of a pattern recognition receptor: Toll-like receptors (TLR) on macrophges and neutrophils.
What happens when the PAMP binds to TLRs? When binding occurs, it triggers innate immune response - (phagocytosis and inflammation) and several antimicrobial chemicals are released, such as defensins, complement and interferon. These attack foreign invader.
Is phagocytosis a specific or non-specific defense mechanism? Non-specific defense mechanism.
Explain phagocytosis. Eating foreign particles and cells by macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells. Occurs in infection sites as well as lymphoid tissue.
Which cells can act as phagocytes? Macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells.
What is an immediate and nonspecific response to injury and infection? Inflammation
In inflammation, tissue macrophages initiate ________________ and secrete ________________. Phagocytes; cytokines
What is a cytokine? Chemical secreted by immune cells and involved in immune response.
What is an example of a cytokine in inflammation? Histamine
What do histamines cause (2 things). Vasodilation and thus increased blood flow. Capillary leakiness and thus adema.
What are fever producing agents that include cytokines secreted by macrophages during phagocytosis? Pyrogens
What does a fever do to the body? Elevates temperature set point in the hypothalamus.
Is a moderate fever beneficial to host or harmful to host? Moderate fever can be beneficial at the expense of a pathogen. High fevers can be dangerous.
What do natural killer cells do? Recognize and kill foreign cells.
How do natural killer cells work? They contain receptors that bind to proteins on other cells. If the cell does not contain MCH-I, the NK cell recognizes it as foreign and secretes chemicals to destroy the cell. These include perforins that puncture the membrane.
What are the cytolytic mediators of natural killer cells? What do they do? Perforins and Granzymes - they puncture foreign cell membrane and cell dies.
What do normal (self) cells have that tumor and foreign cells do not have? MHC-I.
What does the complement system consist of (inactivated)? Inactive proteins produced in the liver and circulate in the body fluid.
How is the complement system activated? It is activated in response to infection.
What does the complement system do when activated? Enhances phagocytosis and inflammation. C3 Convertase splits C3 into C3a and C3b which destroy pathogens - punch holes in membrane and cause water to rush in and destroy bacteria.
What are cytokines produced by host cells infected with viruses? Interferons.
What is the function of interferons? Alert surrounding cells of infection.
What are synthetic interferons (IFN) used to treat? Hepatitis B and C, and genital warts (all caused by viruses)
How does interferons work? They are produced by infected cell and go to neighboring cell to prevent neighboring cells from becoming infected. They stimulate synthesis of AVP in neighbor cells (anti-viral proteins) which inhibit protein synthesis.
Created by: sham13