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Applied Genetics


What does applied genetics mean? Using genetic knowledge.
What are the two main goals of applied genetics? 1) Enhance desired traits 2) Diminish undesired traits
What is controlled breeding? Choosing what traits will be passed on, who will mate who, oldest form of applied genetics.
What is mass selection? Crossing a lot of plants, then picking the best ones and breeding them.
What scientist is known for using mass selection? What was one of his creations from this process? Luther Burbank made the Burbank Potato.
Define: Inbreeding Parent with offspring, siblings, half-siblings (preserves desired traits).
Define: Linebreeding Repeated individuals (makes sure enough time has passed so negative traits aren't passed on).
Define: Outbreeding No relation (brings in new traits).
Why do we consider inbreeding to be a negative thing? There is a higher chance for negative recessive traits.
What term is used to discuss the controlled breeding of humans? Eugenics
What is hybridization? The cross between two different individuals that are genetically different.
Explain the difference between intraspecies and interspecies hybridization. Give an example of each. Intraspecies- The same species being bred together (Ex: Dogs). Interspecies- Different species being bred together (Ex: Mule).
What is hybrid vigor? Hybrids are genetically stronger.
What is recombinant DNA? Combining DNA of 2 different organisms.
What do we use to "cut" the DNA when producing recombinant DNA? Restriction Enzymes
How is bacterial DNA different from human DNA? Bacterial DNA is circular.
What is the name given to a complete piece of bacterial DNA? Plasmid
What is the difference between a sticky end and a blunt end? A sticky end can be put back together (Used in Recombinant DNA). A blunt end can't (Used in Gel Electrophoresis).
What enzyme is used to reattach the different pieces of DNA? Ligase
Explain the process of recombining DNA as we saw in our lab simulation. 1) Isolate gene 2) Restriction enzymes (use the same enzyme for both plasmid DNA and human DNA) - cut DNA with sticky end 3) Ligase (glues sections together) 4) Grow the bacteria with the plasmid 5) Test for uptake with Antibotics
What is a clone? A genetic copy of an organism.
Explain how plants have been cloned for centuries. Plant create runners, they do budding, and vegetative propagation.
Give some examples of natural cloning. Identical Twins, Runners, Budding, Vegetative Propagation, Asexual Reproduction.
What was the first animal cloned? When did this occur? Frog in 1952
What was the first adult mammal cloned? When did this occur? Sheep in 1996
How long did this mammal live? Why did this animal die so young? The sheep only lived 6 years because the DNA at birth was already 6 years old so at 6 the sheep's DNA was 12 years old (the life span of a normal sheep)
Explain the seven steps of cloning. 1) Remove egg 2) Remove DNA from egg 3) Remove Somatic cell from organism 4) Transfer DNA from Somatic cell to the empty egg 5) Activate egg 6) Implant back into sheep womb 7) Let grow
What are some reasons we would want to use cloning technology? To clone organs, cure diseases, bring back species
What is PCR and what is it used for? Polymerase Chain Reaction, To make more DNA from a small sample.
Explain the difference between a genome library and a cDNA library. Genome library - The entire sequence of DNA cDNA library - Just the expressed genes, Uses mRNA as a template
What is DNA fingerprinting? Using DNA to identify individuals.
What percentage of our DNA is identical to that of everyone else? 99.9%
What is gel electrophoresis used for? To separate DNA into fragments and to match the pattern they make.
Explain how gel electrophoresis works. Describe the steps involved in preparing the DNA and running the gel. 1) Cut DNA with restriction enzyme (blunt end) 2) Put DNA in wells 3) Run electric current.
Is DNA positively or negatively charged? Why is this important to know? Blood is negative, so we know which side to put the DNA on the Gel Electrophoresis.
List some uses for DNA fingerprinting. Forensics, Paternity Testing, Body Identification.
When was the first time DNA evidence was used in court? 1986
Explain the southern blotting technique. 1) Run Electrophoresis 2) Lay a nylon sheet over gel (positive charged) 3) DNA goes from double stranded to single stranded 4) Treated with radioactive nucleotides (probes) 5) Lay x-ray film or photographic paper (radiation exposes paper)
Why is southern blotting used? Southern blotting is used to target a specific DNA sequence.
Explain what RFLPs are and why they are important for the DNA fingerprinting process. RFLP - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. They are the different lengths of DNA fragments this is important so that we can match different pieces of DNA together.
Created by: Elise.Postma



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