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Scientific Methods

COVERT - Method and processing skills, STEM

the study and investigation and exploration of natural events, and of the new information that results. SCIENCE
the study of physics, chemistry, matter and energy. PHYSICAL SCIENCE
the study of the Earth's processes inside and outside of Earth. EARTH SCIENCE
the study of living things, all organisms, and the many processes that occur within them. LIFE SCIENCE
the result of using one or more of your senses to gather information and take notice of what occurs observation
a logical explanation of an observation that is drawn from prior knowledge or experience inference
a possible explanation for an observation that can be tested by scientific investigations hypothesis
a statement of what will happen next in a sequence of events as what is considered in the hypothesis is tested prediction
designed to test predictions from a hypothesis; repeatable steps that will lead to measureable data experiment
use of a data table compiled into a graph to review results from an experiment analyze results
draw a conclusion after analyzing results that supports, proves or disproves a hypothesis in which the results tested are consistent conclusion
communicate results of an experiment by exchanging information online, sharing in professional journal articles, or in a speech at a scientific conference communicate
an explanation of observations of events that is based on knowledge gained from observations and investigations scientific theory
a rule that describes a repeatable pattern in nature; not an explanation of why or how but only states that it will happen scientific law
the practical use of scientific knowledge, especially in industrial or commercial use technology
comparing what is known with new information to agree or disagree critical thinking
to doubt the truthfulness of something skepticism
cannot be proven to be true or false Opinions
procedures, precautions, and prevention as well as knowledge of safety symbols and recognizing potential hazards safety
written summmary statements including specificas, measurements, and or results description
interpretation of observations explanation
System'e International'e - an internationally accepted metric measurement system International System of Units (SI)
mega, kilo, hecto, deka [meter, liter, gram] deci, centi, milli, macro, nano SI Prefixes
an expression of error as a percentage of the accepted value Percent Error
favor for or against of a preferred outcome bias
uses words to describe what is observed qualitative data
uses numbers to describe what is observed quantitative data
any factor that can have more than one value variable
the factor you wish to test, the one that will be changed to determine an outcome independant variable
the factor you measure to observe an outcome dependant variable
factors that do not change in an experiment, that will stay the same for all trials constants
uses the same factors as the experiment but the independant variable is not changed control group
used to study how a change in the independent variable will affect the dependant variable measurement experimental group
science journal, balances, thermometers, calculators, computers, scales, hot plate, test paper (litmus or pH), stop watches typical science tools
physical model - see and touch, mathematical model - numerical data of an event or idea, computer simulation - combination of data and mathematical models with computer simulation or animation Models
Data makes sense with some variation within a small range Reasonable Data
Data that do not fit with the rest of a data set Anomalous Data
Line graphs to display continuous numerical data, Bar graphs display both numerical and categorical data, Circle graph demonstrates a visual of category percentages. Graphs
used to see a correlation between two varibles where changes in one variable results in a change and vice versa, not causation scatter plots
number of times an event occurs in a given period frequency distributions
visually displays continuous ranges of frequency distributions histograms
a working model, subject to revisions, troubleshooting or trade offs prototype
identify a need, research the problem, design a solution, brainstorm ideas, document process, create, test and evaluate a prototype, troubleshoot and redesign, communicate solution design process
Created by: MrsCovert