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Toxicology Introduct

Introductory material for toxicology final

"Toxicology" Study of Toxins
"Toxicant" Any poison
"Toxin" Poison made by living thing
"Toxcitity" Inherant biologic properties
"Hazard" Toxicity + Environment
"Toxicosis" Toxicant induced disease
"Xenobiotic Agent" Foreign substance
"Bioactivity" Metabolism to toxic agent
LD50 Less usefull than LD5. Only works in parallel curves.
Acute Treatment (1-3) 1. Get info (what, quantity, when, poison control for toxic profile). 2. Vomit (ipecac, mustard powder unless in coma, seizures, STRONG acid or base, petroleum distillates, heart disease, pregnancy or strychnine). 3. Absorbants: activated charcoal
Acute Treatment (4-5) 4. Decontaminate skin and eyes. 5. Get help
Professional Acute Treatment (0-1) 0. Emergency (coma, excess activation, arrythmias, metabolic acidosis, seizures, GI) 1. Initial exam (get specimen, physical exam)
Professional Acute Treatment (2-3) 2. Remove unabsorbed toxin via emesis (ipecac oral or apomorphine IV, gastric lavage (tube), cathartic (Na2SO4 and Mg2SO4 to increase elimination from GI), Absorb (activated charcoal)) 3. Antidotes (inverse graph between plasma concentration and time)
Professional Acute Treatment (4) 4. Support (most important, respiratory, circulatory (shock), temperature, pain)
Professional Acute Treatment (5) 5. Increase elimination (forced diuresis : increased fluid volume, change urinary pH : ion trapping = WA increase pH : NaHCO3, WB decrease pH : Na4Cl2, peritoneal dialysis : ion trapping, fluid into peritoneum, hemodialysis : slow elimination : small MW)
Determinants of Damage Dose, nature, tissue and cell characteristics (metabolic enzymes, protecitve mechanisms : GSH, antioxidants, functional reserve, regenerative abilities, rate, progress : inflammation)
Created by: chavezc3