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Goljan's Neoplasia

QuestionAnswer
What is the difference between the origin of carcinoma and sarcoma? Carcinoma derives from epithelial tissue. Sarcoma derives from connective tissue.
Which is a property of tumors..monoclonal or polyclonal? Monoclonal
How does malignant tumors get out of basement membrane for invasion? Type IV collegenase dissolves basement membrane
Malignant tumors may invade locally. Where is laminin found? And what is its relationship with the invasion of malignant tumor? Laminin is found in basement membrane. Malignant cells have laminin receptor to attach to basement membrane to secrete type IV collagenase.
Malignant tumors may invade locally. Where is fibronectin found? And what is its relationship with the invasion of malignant tumor? Fibronectin is found in Extra cellular matrix. Malignant cells have fibronectin receptors to go out into ECM.
The usual mechanism of dissemination of carcinoma is through lymphatic or hematogenous? Lymphatic
The usual mechanism of dissemination of sarcoma is through lymphatic or hematogenous? Hematogenous
Name the gene which is inactivated leading to Retinoblastoma. RB suppressor gene
Name the gene which is inactivated leading to Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. APC suppressor gene
Name the gene which is inactivated leading to Li-Fraumeni syndrome. TP 53 suppressor gene
In hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, the characteristic finding is alteration in _________ nucleotide sequence. Microsatellite
Actinic (solar) keratosis predisposes to what type of cancer? Squamous cell carcinoma
ABL proto-oncogene is associated with which cancer? Also state the type of mutation. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. Translocation t(9;22)
ERBB2 proto-oncogene is associated with which cancer? Also state the type of mutation. Breast carcinoma. Amplification
MYC proto-oncogene is associated with which cancer? Also state the type of mutation. Burkitt's lymphoma. Translocation t(8;14)
N-MYC proto-oncogene is associated with which cancer? Neuroblastoma
RAS proto-oncogene is associated with which cancer? Leukemia, lung, colon and pancreatic carcinoma
RET proto-oncogene is associated with which cancer syndrome? Multiple endocrine neoplasia IIa/IIb syndrome
SIS proto-oncogene is associated with which cancer? Also state the type of mutation. Osteogenic sarcoma, Astrocytoma. Overexpression
BCL2 anti-apoptosis gene is associated with cancer? Also state the type of mutation. B-cell follicular lymphoma. Translocation t(14;18)-causes overexpression
How does BCL2 gene prevent apoptosis? Its protein products prevent cytochrome c from leaving mitochondria, therefore no cytochrome c in cytosol which will activate caspases initiating apoptosis.
RB tumor suppressor gene is associated with which cancer? Retinoblastoma, Osteogenic sarcoma, Breast carcinoma.
BRCA 1/ BRCA 2 tumor suppressor gene is associated with which cancer? Breast and ovarian cancer.
TGF-Beta tumor suppressor gene is associated with which cancer? Pancreatic and colorectal cancer.
WT 1 tumor suppressor gene is associated with which cancer? Wilms' tumor
Defect in mismatch repair gene will result in which cancer? Hereditary Non-Polposis Colorectal Carcinoma.
What is the function of the BAX gene? It promotes apoptosis. It is activated by TP 53, which causes it to inactivate BCL 2 anti-apoptosis gene.
Aflatoxin is associated with which cancer? Hepatocellular carcinoma.
Arsenic is associated with which cancer? SCC of Skin
Asbestos is associated with which cancer? Mesothelioma, Bronchogenic carcinoma
Benzene is associated with which cancer? Acute Leukemia.
Beryllium is associated with which cancer? Bronchogenic carcinoma, along with asbestos, chromium, nickel and silica.
Chromium is associated with which cancer? Bronchogenic carcinoma, along with asbestos, beryllium, nickel and silica.
Nickel is associated with which cancer? Bronchogenic carcinoma, along with asbestos, beryllium, chromium, and silica.
Cyclophosphamide is associated with which cancer? Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, along with aniline dyes.
Beta-Napthylamine (aniline dyes) is associated with which cancer? Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, along with cyclophosphamide.
Di-Ethyl-Stilbestrol is associated with which cancer? Clear cell carcinoma of vagina.
What is the most effective host defence againts cancer? Cytotoxic CD8 T cells
Name the cytokine involved in the mechanism of cachexia. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
CA 125 is a tumor marker associated with which cancer? Surface derived Ovarian cancer
CEA is a tumor marker associated with which cancer? Colorectal and pancreatic cancer
CA 15-3 is a tumor marker associated with which cancer? Breast cancer.
CA 19-9 is a tumor marker associated with which cancer? Pancreatic cancer.
AFP is a tumor marker associated with which cancer? Hepatocellular carcinoma, and Yolk sac tumor
Created by: lemontea88