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NURS1004 Week 4

Week 4 Anatomy and Physiology Nursing

Define anatomy The study of internal and external body structures and their physical relationships among other body parts.
Define physiology The study of how living organisms perform their functions.
What is 'gross anatomy' or' macroscopic anatomy'? Relatively large structures that can be seen without a microscope.
What is 'surface anatomy'? Locating structures on or near the body surface.
What is 'regional anatomy'? The anatomical organisation of specific areas of the body, such as head, neck or trunk.
What is 'systemic anatomy'? The study of the structure of organ systems - organs that function together in a coordinated manner.
What is 'clinical anatomy'? A definition of a number of sub-specialties important in clinical practice. Eg. pathological anatomy, and surgical anatomy.
What is 'radiographic anatomy'? anatomical structures seen using specialized imaging techniques.
What is 'pathological anatomy'? Anatomical features that change during illness
What is 'surgical anatomy'? Anatomical landmarks important in surgery
What is an 'eponym"? A person after whom a discovery, invention, place, etc., is named or thought to be named. Eg. the Achilles tendon.
What is 'developmental anatomy'? Changes that take place between conception and adulthood. Considers anatomical structures over a broad range of sizes - from a single cell to an adult human.
When does the most extensive structural changes take place for humans? The first two months of development
What is 'Microscopic anatomy'? Anatomy that deals with structures that can't be seen without a microscope.
What are the 2 major subdivisions of Microscopic anatomy? Cytology and Histology.
What is 'Cytology'? The study of the internal structure of individual cells.
What is 'Histology'? The examination of tissues.
What is 'Cell Physiology'? The study of the function of cells.
What is 'Organ Physiology'? The study of the function of specific organs.
What is 'Systemic 'Physiology'? The functioning of specific organ systems.
What is 'Pathological Physiology'? The study of the effects of disease on organ function or system functions.
What is the difference between a 'sign' and a 'symptom'? A sign is an objective disease indication eg. a fever. A symptom is a subjective disease indication eg. tiredness.
What are the levels of organization of the human body in the order of smallest to largest? Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System and Organism.
What is homeostasis? What can happen when homeostasis is not maintained? A stable internal environment. Failure to maintain homeostasis soon leads to illness or even death.
What are the 2 major homeostatic regulation mechanisms? 1. Autoregulation - occurs when a cell, tissue, organ or organ system adjusts in response to an environmental change. 2. Extrinsic regulation - Results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system that detects an environmental change.
What is the main differences between nervous system responses and endocrine responses? The nervous system directs rapid, short term and very specific responses, orders muscles to contract when you touch a hot stove. The endocrine system releases hormones into the bloodstream, which may not be immediate but can persist for days or weeks.
What are the 4 major organs in the Integument system? 1. Skin 2. Hair 3. Sweat Glands 4. Nails
What are the 4 major organs in the Skeletal system? 1. Bones 2. Cartilages 3. Associated ligaments 4. Bone marrow
What are the 2 major organs in the Muscular system? 1. Skeletal muscles 2. Associated tendons
What are the 4 major organs in the Nervous system? 1. Brain 2. Spinal Cord 3. Peripheral Nerves 4. Sense Organs
What are the 6 major organs in the Endocrine system? 1. Pituitary Gland 2. Thyroid Gland 3. Pancreas 4. Adrenal Glands 5. Gonads 6. Endocrine tissues in other systems
What are the 3 major organs in the Cardiovascular system? 1. Heart 2. Blood 3. Blood Vessels
What are the 5 major organs in the Lymphatic system? 1. Spleen 2. Thymus 3. Lymphatic Vessels 4. Lymphatic Nodes 5. Tonsils
What are the 7 major organs in the Respiratory system? 1. Nasal Cavities 2. Sinuses 3. Larynx 4. Trachea 5. Bronchi 6. Lungs 7. Alveoli
What are the 10 major organs in the Digestive system? 1. Teeth 2. Tongue 3. Pharynx 4. Esophagus 5. Stomach 6. Small Intestine 7. Large Intestine 8. Liver 9. Gall Bladder 10. Pancreas
What are the 4 major organs in the Urinary system? 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Urinary Bladder 4. Urethra
What are the 7 major organs in the Male Reproductive system? 1. Testes 2. Epididymides 3. Ductus Deferentia 4. Seminal Vesicles 5. Prostate Gland 6. Penis 7. Scrotum
What are the 7 major organs in the Female Reproductive system? 1. Ovaries 2. Uterine Tubes 3. Uterus 4. Vagina 5. Labia 6. Clitoris 7. Mammary Glands
What is the function of negative feedback systems in relation to homeostasis? To change the variable back to its original state, “ideal value”, or homeostasis.
Explain how a positive feedback system works? In a positive feedback system, the output enhances the original stimulus. Whereas in negative feedback, the output reduces the original effect of the stimulus.
Why is positive feedback helpful in blood clotting but unsuitable for the regulation of body temperature? Because positive feedback mechanisms enhance the original stimulus which is the rise in temperature and negative feedback mechanisms inhibit it, positive feedback would keep escalating the rise in temperature until something intervened.
Define equilibrium Use body temperature as an example Equilibrium is a dynamic (constantly changing) state in which two opposing forces or processes are in balance.
When the body continuously adapts by utilizing homeostatic systems, it is said to be a state of ________________ equilibrium. Dynamic
Explain how the negative feedback system works? (using thermo-regulation as the example) A control center in the hypothalamus receives information from temperature receptors in the skin and within the hypothalamus when the temperature rises, the control centers then cause blood vessels to dilate and increase secretion, lowering the body temp.
What does it mean if someone says "the regulatory process of thermo-regulation is 'dynamic'"? Give an example in relation to body temperature. It is constantly changing because the 'set point' may vary with changing environments or differing activity levels. Eg. When you are asleep your thermo-regulatory point is set lower, when your outside on a hot day it is set higher.
Explain how the negative feedback system works? (using blood sugar levels as the example) When blood sugar rises, receptors in the body sense a change . In turn, the control center (pancreas) secretes insulin into the blood effectively lowering blood sugar levels. Once blood sugar levels reach homeostasis, the pancreas stops releasing insulin.
In homeostatic control what does the 'Stimulus' do? Stimulus– produces a change to a variable (the factor being regulated).
In homeostatic control what do the 'Receptors' do? Receptor– detects the change. The receptor monitors the environment and responds to change (stimuli).
In homeostatic control what is the 'Input'? Input– information travels along the (afferent) pathway to the control center. The control center determines the appropriate response and course of action.
In homeostatic control what is the 'Output'? Output– information sent from the control center travels down the (efferent) pathway to the effector.
In homeostatic control what is the 'Response'? Response– a response from the effector balances out the original stimulus to maintain homeostasis.
In homeostatic control what do 'Afferent pathways' do? They carry nerve impulses into the central nervous system. For instance, if you felt scorching heat on your hand, the message would travel through afferent pathways to your central nervous system.
In homeostatic control what do 'Efferent pathways' do? carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous system to effectors (muscles, glands). It would then interact with the effector and travel down the efferent pathway, eventually making the person remove their hand from the scorching heat.
Explain how the positive feedback system works? (using child birth as an example) During labor, a hormone, oxytocin is released that intensifies and speeds up contractions. The increase of contractions causes more oxytocin to be released and the cycle continues until the baby is born and the positive feedback mechanism stops.
Explain how the positive feedback system works? (using blood clotting as an example) Once a vessel is damaged, platelets start to cling to the injured site and release chemicals that attract more platelets. The platelets continue to pile up and release chemicals until a clot is formed.
What is a 'positive feedback loop'? and when is it typically found? It is an escalating cycle of the increase of a stimulus, typically found when a potentially dangerous or stressful process must be completed quickly to restore homeostasis. Eg. a severe cut creating severe blood loss and a decrease in body temperature.
What 4 primary body systems are involved in body temperature? 1. Integumentary system 2. Muscular system 3. Cardiovascular system 4. Nervous system
What 4 primary body systems are involved in Nutrient concentration? 1. Digestive system 2. Cardiovascular system 3. Urinary system 4. Skeletal system
What 2 primary body systems are involved in Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide levels? 1. Respiratory system 2. Cardiovascular system
What primary body system are involved in the level of toxins and pathogens? The Lymphatic system
What 5 primary body systems are involved in Body fluid volume? 1. Urinary system 2. Digestive system 3. Integumentary system 4. Cardiovascular system 5. Lymphatic system
What 3 primary body systems are involved in Waste Product Concentration? 1. Urinary system 2. Digestive system 3. Cardiovascular system
What 3 primary body systems are involved in Blood Pressure? 1. Cardiovascular system 2. Nervous system 3. Endocrine system
What is the 'Cranial'? Skull
What is the 'Frontal'? Forehead
What is the 'Cephalic'? Head
What is the 'Nasal'? Nose
What is the 'Ocular'? Eye
What is the 'Orbital'? Eye
What is the 'Otic'? Ear
What is the 'Buccal'? Cheek
What is the 'Cervical'? Neck
What is the 'Thorax'? Chest
What is the 'Mammary'? Breast
What is the 'Navel'? Umbilical
What is the 'Pelvic'? Pelivis
What is the 'Manual'? Hand
What is the 'Inguinal'? Groin
What is the 'Pubis'? Pubic region
What is the 'Femoral'? Thigh
What is the 'Pedal'? Foot
What is the 'Hallux'? Big Toe
What is the 'Digits'? Toes / Fingers
What is the 'Phalanges'? Toes / Fingers
What is the 'Tarsal'? Ankle
What is the 'Crural'? Leg
What is the 'Patellar'? Kneecap
What is the 'Pollex'? Thumb
What is the 'Palmar'? Palm of hand
What is the 'Carpal'? Wrist
What is the 'Antebrachial'? Forearm
What is the 'Antecubital'? Front of elbow (inside of arm)
What is the 'Brachial'? Upper Arm
What is the 'Axillay'? Armpit
What is the 'Mental'? Chin
What is the 'Oral'? Mouth
What is the 'Acromial'? Shoulder
What is the 'Dorsal'? Back
What is the 'Olecranal'? Back of elbow (outside of arm)
What is the 'Lumbar'? Loin region
What is the 'Gluteal'? Buttock
What is the 'Popliteal'? Back of the knee
What is the 'Sural'? Calf
What is the 'Calcaneal'? Heel of foot
What is the 'Plantar'? Sole of foot
What are the 4 abdominopelvic 'quadrants'? 1. Right upper Quadrant 2. Left upper Quadrant 3. Right lower Quadrant 4. Left lower Quadrant
What are the 9 abdominopelvic 'regions'? 1. Right hypochondriac region 2. Left hypochondriac region 3. Right Lumbar region 4. Left Lumbar region 5. Right inguinal region 6. Left inguinal region 7. Epigastric region 8. Umbilical region 9. Hypogastric (pubic) region
What organs are in the right hypochondriac region? Edge of the liver.
What organs are in the left hypochondriac region? Spleen and small part of stomach.
What organs are in the right lumbar region? Edge of small and large intestines.
What organs are in the left lumbar region? Edge of small and large intestines
What organs are in the Epigastric region? Liver and Stomach
What organs are in the Umbilical region? Gallbladder, part of the stomach, part of the Large and Small intestine
What organs are in the Hypogastric region? Appendix, Urinary bladder and most of the small and large intestines.
What is 'proximal' and 'distal"? Proximal = Toward the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk. (shoulder is proximal (compared) to the wrist') Distal = Away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk. (fingers are distal to the wrist')
What is 'Medial' and 'lateral'? Medial = toward the midline <------------> Lateral = Away from the midline <--------->
What is 'posterior'? (also known as dorsal) To the back of the surface
What is 'anterior'? (also known as ventral) To the front of the surface
What is 'caudal'? Toward the tail (coccyx in humans)
What is a transverse plane? Cross section separating the superior and inferior portions of the body.
What is a Sagittal plane? Midsagittal section separating the right and left into equal portions of the body.
What is a Frontal or Coronal Plane? Separates the anterior and posterior.
What is the diaphragm? A flat muscular sheet that separates the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.
What is the pericardial cavity? The cavity the heart is in (like a fist pushed into a balloon), lies at the connection between the heart and major blood vessels.
What is the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium? Both are the outside layers of the pericardial cavity containing pericardial fluid. The visceral is the layer that is closest to the heart and Parietal is the layer furthest from the heart.
What 7 organs does the thoracic cavity contain? 1. Heart, 2. lungs, Inferior portions of the: 3. esophagus and 4. thymus Associated organs of the: 5. respiratory 6. cardiovascular and 7. lymphatic systems.
What 5 organs does the abdominal cavity contain? 1. Liver 2. Stomach 3. Spleen 4. Small Intestine 5. Most of the large intestine
What 8 organs does the pelvic cavity contain? (Including the male and female organs) 1. Urinary bladder 2. Reproductive organs 3. Distal portions of the large intestines In females 4. Ovaries 5. Uterine tubes 6. Uterus In males 7. Prostate glands 8. Seminal glands (seminal vesicles).
What organs does the dorsal cavity contain? The internal chambers of the skull (cranial cavity) and space enclosed by the vertebral bodies and vertebral arches (vertebral cavity).
What are the 2 essential functions of the body cavities of the trunk? 1. Protect internal organs and cushion them from thumps and bumps that occur while walking, running, or jumping. 2. To permit the organ that they surround to change in size and shape without disrupting the activities of nearby organs.
What is the purpose of anatomical terms? The purpose of anatomical terms is to provide a standardize frame of reference for describing the human body.
Why is homeostatic regulation important to an organism. Homeostatic regulation prevents potentially disruptive changes in the body's internal environment.
Which general mechanism of homeostatic regulation always involves the nervous or endocrine system? Extrinsic regulation
At which level of biological organization does a histologist investigate structures? At the tissue level of organization.
Why is it difficult to separate anatomy from physiology? It is difficult to separate anatomy from physiology because the structures of the body are so closely related to their functions; put another way, function follows form.
Identify 4 specialties of physiology. 1.Cell physiology 2. Organ physiology 3. Systemic physiology 4. Pathological physiology.
Name the book that serves as the international standard for anatomical vocabulary. International Anatomical Terminology
Define medical terminology. Is the use of prefixes, suffixes, word roots, and combining forms to construct anatomical, physiological, or medical terms.
Why is studying human a anatomy and physiology important? Studying human anatomy and physiology is important because understanding normal physiology assists in recognizing when something abnormal occurs within the body.
What is the oldest medical science? Anatomy
What are 3 functions of the integumentary system? 1. Protects against environmental hazards 2. Helps regulate body temperate 3. Provides sensory information
What are 3 functions of the Skeletal system? 1. Provides support and protection for other tissues 2. Stores calcium and other minerals 3. Forms blood cells
What are 3 main functions of the Muscular system? 1. Provides movement 2. Provides protection and support for other tissues 3. Generates heat that maintains body temperature
What are 3 main functions of the Nervous system? 1. Directs immediate responses to stimuli 2. Coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems 3. Provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions.
What are 2 main functions of the Cardiovascular system? 1. Distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved minerals including nutrients, waste products, oxygen and carbon dioxide. 2. Distributes heat and assists in the control of body temperature.
What are 2 main functions of the Lymphatic system? 1. Defends against infection and disease 2. Returns tissue fluids to the blood stream
What are 4 main functions of the Respiratory system? 1. Delivers air to alveoli 2. Provides oxygen to the blood stream 3. Removes carbon dioxide from blood stream 4. Produces sounds for communication
What are 4 main functions of the Digestive system? 1. Processes and digests food 2. Absorbs and conserves water 3. Absorbs nutrients 4. Stores energy reserves
What are 4 main functions of the Urinary system? 1. Excretes waste products from the blood 2. Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced. 3, Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination 4. Regulates blood ion concentration and pH
What are 2 main functions of the Male Reproductive system? 1. Produces male sex cells (sperm), seminal fluids and hormones 2. Sexual intercourse
What are 4 main functions of the Female Reproductive system? 1. Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones 2. Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery 3. Provides milk to nourish newborn infant 4. Sexual intercourse
What is 'Auscultation'? The action of listening to sounds from the heart, lungs or other organs with a stethoscope.
Created by: Kirky