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QuestionAnswer
pumps to the lungs pulmonary circuit
delivers oxygen to the cells of the body systemic circulation
carry blood AWAY from the heart arteries
carry blood TOWARD the heart veins
the site of gas exchange with cells capillaries
blood helps regulate body temperature and fight infections true
the human body contains how many liters of blood? 4-6
Plasma is about how much percent water and how many percent gases, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, slats, proteins, etc.,? 90%, 10%
Albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen are? plasma protein
Fibrinogen is necessary for blood clotting. true
fluid and small particles that leave the blood are collectively called? lymph
Some of the lymph is collected in a network of vessels, nodes, and organs called lymphatic system
How does lymph help protect infection? screens for micro organisms
What moves lymph into ducts? pressure from skeletal muscles
Where does lymph return to he bloodstream? through veins just below the shoulders
What nutrients does the lymphatic system pick up in the digestive tract and transport to the bloodstream? fats and fat-soluble vitamins
What are the functions of lymph nodes? gathering debris from the body, collecting cancer cells, trapping microorganisms
Which organ of the lymphatic system stores platelets? spleen
carries dissolved nutrients plasma
carry oxygen Red blood cells
function in the immune response White blood cells
function in blood clotting platelets
What is the function of the circulatory system? To transport nutrients, hormones, metabolic waste, heat, and gases throughout the body.
What structures are part of the circulatory system? The heart, the blood vessels and blood.
A muscle that pumps the body the Heart
How many chambers does the heart have? 4
heart-lungs-heart; where the blood dumps the Co2 and picks up oxygen pulmonary circuit
heart-body-heart; where the blood unloads the oxygen and picks up co2- among other things systemic circuit
a small number of cardiac muscle fibers SA node (sinoatrial node)
What are the name of the upper heart chambers that receive blood? The right atrium receives the oxygen-poor blood from the body. The left atrium receive the oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.
What are the name of the lower chambers of the heart that pump blood away from the heart? The right ventricle send oxygen-poor blood to the lungs. The left ventricle sends oxygen-rich blood to the body tissues.
what type of vessels are attached to the ventricles? Arteries
what type of vessels are attached to the atriums? Veins
What is the name of the bunch of nervous tissue that controls the heartbeat and where is it found? SA node is found in the upper right atrium of the heart.
deoxygenated blood pulmonary circuit
oxygenated blood systemic circuit
thick smooth muscle layer arteries
Compare the anatomy of the artery and vein blood vessels. Arteries have a thick smooth muscle layer, Their inner diameters are smaller than the veins, veins have valves
What is the name of the largest artery and where is it found? The aorta, It is found upon exiting the left ventricle
do not have as much pressure veins
prevent the backflow of blood as it makes its way back to the heart valves
Name largest vein vena cava; superior and inferior
smallest vessels just one cell layer thick and one cell wide in diameter capillaries
the flow of blood through vessels from and to the heart artery - arteriole - capillary - venules - veins
the pressure of blood against the arterial walls blood pressure
How is blood pressure measured? a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope
What is normal blood pressure? 120/80
the upper number is the pressure in the vessels during a heart contraction systole
the pressure in the vessels between contractions diastole
Blood pressure is regulated by the? brain and kidneys
blood pressure that is too high can lead to (hypertension) heart attacks, stroke and kidney damage
Ways to prevent high blood pressure 1) healthy diet 2) regular exercise 3) healthy weight 4) avoiding smoking
the measure of force exerted on vessel walls by blood. blood pressure
How is blood pressure measured? It is typically measured in mm of mercury (Hg).
What in blood vessels detects BP? Sensory neurons
What happens if BP is high? kidneys remove water from circulation and BP goes down.
Blood pressure may also be regulated by constricting or dilating the blood vessels as well. true
can result in loss of circulation in the limbs. Low (hypotension)
can weaken the heart muscle and cause leakage. High (Hypertension)
Name the 4 main components of blood plasma, red blood cells, whit blood cells, and platelets
Plasma compromises how much of blood? 55%
Parts of the plasma help control? body temp, transport substances, and fight infections
Red blood cells transport? Oxygen
Red blood cells are? bags of hemoglobin They do not have a nucleus or many cell organelles. The iron in the hemoglobin binds to oxygen.
How long do red blood cells live for? 120 days
White blood cells do what? are part of the immune system. They patrol the blood and lymph systems seeking invaders. They can leave blood circulation and enter the tissue
What is the proportion of each cell type in the blood? RBC are the most abundant. There are about 5 billion per mL. WBC There are about 10 million per mL There are about 400 million per mL platelets.
White blood cells last for how long? years
broken off fragments of macrophage cytoplasm involved in blood clotting platelets
How long do platelets last? 5-9 days
Platelets release thromboplastin that start this cascade resulting in fibrin being made. true
Which is the universal donor? Type O
Which is the universal recipient? Type AB
a network of vessels , nodes, and organs that collect fluid and leave the capillaries, screens and forms pathogens and returns it to the circulatory system lymphatic system
What are the functions of the lymphatic system? Return fluids back to the circulatory system Filter out bacteria, foreign materials, toxins in lymph Transport proteins back to blood Produce antibodies to fight bacteria Absorbs fat from the intestine and transport to liver
What are the organs of the lymphatic system? thymus, liver, spleen, tonsils, bone marrow and a series of lymph vessels and nodes.
A leading cause of heart disease is atherosclerosis, a condition which fatty acids deposits called plaques build up in artery walls and eventually cause the arteries to stiffen heart disease
A clot that blocks a blood vessel in the brain, which the sudden death of brain cells when their blood supply is interrupted stroke
Blood pressure higher than 140/90. can damage the heart and blood vessels. leads to strokes, heart attacks hypertension/ high blood pressure
what is the function of the immune system? protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal and viral infections as well as from growth of tumor cells. determine “self” from “non-self”.
What is an antigen? antigen is a molecule typically found on the outer surfaces of bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
How do antigens help the immune system do its job? The immune system knows its body’s own unique set of antigens. If it encounters an antigen that is not part of its own set, it mounts an attack against the foreign material.
helper T-cells sound the alarm, alerting the immune system that a foreign invader is preset and mount the attack. true
cytotoxic T-cells proliferate and engage the invader; B cells try to formulate a specific antibody against the pathogen to identify it for destruction; the B-ells are removed but some remain keeping the recipe for the specific antibody in the event that same pathogen invades again called memory cells
What are antibodies? Antibodies are globulin proteins produced by the hosts B cells and each is made for a specific foreign antigen. The antibodies are designed to bind tightly and mark the invader for death.
What is agglutination? Agglutination is the clumping of particles.
Which of the 2 circulatory systems is largest, the pulmonary or the systemic circuit? The systemic circuit
What structure in the heart keeps the oxygen-poor blood on the right side from mixing with the oxygen-rich blood found on the left side? The heart’s septum.
What is the name of the node that picks up the electrical impulse to send it along to the ventricles so that they contract and where is it located? atrioventricular node (AV node)
Once the electrical impulse activates the AV node, what other fibers are activated and result in a ventricular contraction? AV node - bundle of HIS - bundle branches - Purkinje fibers - ventricular contractions
What kinds of medical conditions could low blood pressure or hypotension lead to? could cause dizziness and fainting, severe: deprive the brain and other vital organs of oxygen and nutrients, leading to a life-threatening conditions or loss of limb.
What does the “T” in T lymphocytes stand for? The “T” stands for Thymus where
carry oxygen. red blood cells
red blood cells are in the bone marrow
If mother Rh- and fetus Rh+, mother’s body can build up antibodies against baby’s Rh antigen. During second pregnancy, antibodies can cross the placenta. yes
HIV transmitted through contact with infected blood like infected blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk
When T-cells drop to 1/6 the normal level you have AIDS
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) make them opportunistic infections normally easily suppressed like TB Karposi's sarcoma Pneumonias
lack of oxygen typically due to a deficiency of red blood cells or low iron in the red blood cells. anemia
a cancer of the white blood cells. The bone marrow cancer produces non-functioning white blood cells. leukemia
an X-linked recessive genetic disease that results in poor clotting of blood. They are deficient in something called Factor VIII. hemophilia
a viral infection of lymph organs and can cause fatigue lasting for months. It causes the monocyte type of white blood cell to become elevated mononucleosis
is a viral infection that disables the helper T-cells of the immune system AIDS
What is arteriosclerosis? a hardening of the arteries or loss of elasticity of the arteries.
What is a thrombosis? A thrombosis is an intact blood clot attached to a vessel
What is the difference between a thrombosis and an embolism? It becomes an emboli when it releases from the vessel and moves around in the blood circulation until it causes a blocked vessel somewhere else
What is fibrin? Fibrin is a sticky protein that forms a network of fibers that are the basis of a clot.
What are the 3 basic steps for blood clotting? 1. Break in capillary 2. Platelets clump at the injury site and release thromboplastin which converts prothrombin to thrombin. 3. A clot forms when thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin.
What does thromboplastin convert prothrombin into? Prothrombin is converted into thrombin.
What does thrombin convert fibrinogen into? fibrin
What percent of blood is red blood cells? 45%
How did Edward Jenner develop the first vaccine? Inoculated 8 y o boy, James Phipps with cow pox pus. Phipps got sick with cow pox (less dangerous than small pox) and recovered. A little while later Phipps was inoculated with small pox pus. Phipps did not get sick.
What are the functions of blood? Blood transports nutrients, gasses, wastes around the body It regulates body temperature, pH, and electrolytes Protect from invaders. Restricts the loss of fluids
How do vaccines work? a small amount or less dangerous form of a pathogen to a person and then let that person’s immune system formulate an antibody against it.
What are the 5 kinds of blood vessels? Artery, arteriole, capillaries, venule, and vein.
Created by: fikott1