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WGU Science

Integrated Natural Science

What is an Independent Variable? Changes on Purpose
What is a Dependent Variable? What you see because of the independent variable
What is a controlled variable? A condition is kept the same throughout the entire experiment
What is a fact? Observation/phenomenon all observers agree on
What is a Theory? Well tested and supported broad explanation for all available observations and data
What is a Law? Well tested and supported description of an aspect
Biology is? Studies Bodies of Animals and People
Chemistry is? The Study of Medicines
Physics is? The Study of forces needed
Geology is? The Study of Rocks
Astronomy is? The Study of stars/ Solar System
Equation for work? Work = (force)X(distance)
Why can’t simple machines reduce the total amount of work that is done to move an object? We still had to work to move it, just didn’t have to move it all the way on our own thanks to the machines help.
What is Potential Energy? Energy a system has due to its shape/ position. Potential to do work
What is an example of Potential Energy? Exercise Band- Stretching out
What is an example of Electrical potential Energy? Lightning storm or light bulbs
What is an example of Chemical Potential Energy? Food preparation
What is an example of Gravitational Potential Energy? An object held in the air and let go it will drop/ fall to the ground.
What is Kinetic Energy and what are some examples? Energy due to motion- car, river, rolling ball, running, wind, sky diver, baseball thrown
What happens to kinetic energy when the mass and speed of an object changes? If it’s faster it increases. If it is slower the energy decreases.
What is Thermal Energy? Another form of kinetic energy examples are hot cup of cocoa, thermostat/heater
What is the Law of Conservation of Energy? It can change form but cannot be destroyed
What is gravitational force? Force between 2 objects that have mass. More massive objects have greater force.
What is the relationship between thermal energy and gravitational force in a star? In gravity, it is pushing together the molecules. The thermal energy is pressure pushing out from the middle
What is inverse relationship? Forces decrease at a faster rate
What 2 factors contribute to the strength of gravitational force? Mass and Distance
How does Mass and Distance affect the strength of the force? Increases Mass= increase force… increase distance= decrease force.
What factors contribute to the strength of electrical force? The electrical charge of the objects involved
How does the electrical charge affect the strength of the force? Positive and negative attract each other… negative result forces attract… positive forces they repel each other
What is Vector? Velocity force, acceleration, momentum
What is Scalar? Speed, pressure, mass, energy, temperature
What is the difference between Newton’s Laws and Coulomb’s laws? Newtons laws are based on Mass and Distance… Coulomb’s law is based on the charge of the particles involved. Both follow the inverse square law.
What is Newton’s First Law? Object and rest tends to stay at rest. An object in motion stays in motion
What is Newton’s Second Law? If acted upon by a net force, an object will accelerate
What is Newton’s Third Law? For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. You cannot touch without being touched.
What is a wave? How light and sound travels
What is a Transverse Wave? Perpendicular wave—light/ ocean waves
What is a Longitudinal wave? Parallel waves- Sound
What is a wave length? Distance between identical parts of waves
What is frequency? Number of vibrations per unit/time
What is amplitude? Maximum displacement up or down from a mid-point
What is reflection? Angle arrives is the same angle it bounces off
What is Refraction? Wave moves from one media to another
What is Diffraction? How waves travel through small openings
What is interference? 2 wave lengths of sound/light
What is Destructive interference? Amplitudes do not line up
What is constructive interference? Amplitudes line up and increases in sound/light
Electromagnetic waves located on the electromagnetic spectrum from high to low frequency? Gamma Rays, x-rays, ultra violet, visible light, infared, microwaves, Radio Waves.
What are the different colors of visible light. Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet (violet is placed next to ultraviolet on electromagnetic spectrum with higher frequency)
What happens when there is a strong nuclear force? Neutrons hold the protons together tightly
When Electrical force is strong what happens? The nucleus tends to split
What does E= mc2 stand for? Energy = Mass (speed of light) squared
What happens during a nuclear fission? Atoms are splitting apart- Nuclear Bomb, Nuclear power plant- produce energy
What happens to the mass per nucleon in an atom when it is split into a smaller nuclei? When it splits it gets smaller thus MORE energy is needed.
What happens in a nuclear fission? Small nuclea join forces and example is stars
How does the mass per nucleon change in a nuclear fusion? When there is a fusion there is a reaction that builds and some of the mass is lost resulting in LESS mass per nucleon and the energy is building.
What is Fusion? joins
What is Fission? Divides
What is Thermonuclear fusion and where does it occur? High temperature fusion in stars- Hydrogen to Helium to carbon
What is the chemical composition of stars? 71% Hydrogen, 27% Helium, 1% Oxygen, .5% Carbon, .01% Silicon, .01% Nitrogen
What is the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram? Plots the luminosity or absolute magnitude of a star with respect to its temperature
Describe the relationship between gravitational force and thermal energy from fusion in the life of a star? The amount of Fusion/force occurs. Gravity pushes to core… Thermal pushes away from core. Decrease—fall apart/ increase becomes stronger star
What is the life cycle of our sun? 1. Hydrogen burning Main sequence star (average star) 2. Helium burning increases thermal pressure (red giant star) 3. Thermal pressure greatly exceeds gravity (planetary Nebula) 4. Hot, non-fusing carbon core (White Dwarf)
What star has a characteristic of Hydrogen burning? Main Sequence Star
What star has a characteristic of Helium burning? Red Giant
What star has a characteristic of Bigger Massive Stars? Super Giant
What star has a characteristic of Fusion of Carbon? White Dwarf
What are the Characteristics of a Neutron Star? Large ball of Neutrons end of massive star sequence
What is the Massive Star diagram order? Nebula/ main sequence/ red super giant/ super nova/ black hole or neutron star
What is the Star order with stars similar to our sun? Nebula/ main sequence/ red giant/ white dwarf
What is the order of components of the solar system from sun to Oort Cloud? Sun/ Terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars/ Asteroid Wall/ Jovian planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune/ Kuiper Comets/ Pluto/ Oort Cloud
What is Cosmology? Study of the Universe
What is Hubble’s Law and how does it support the Big Bang Theory? Farther Galaxies= faster/ happening in all directions/ Universe is expanding
What is cosmic background radiation? Low level radiation around us
What is the difference between a pure substance and a mixture? A pure substance is an element or compound with a fixed chemical composition. A mixture is a combination of 2 or more substances.
What is an example of a pure substance? Gold, Diamonds, water and Methane
What is an example of a mixture? Ocean Water, rocks, air
What is a heterogeneous mixture? Can see all of the parts like a fruit salad or soup
What is a homogeneous mixture? Looks like one part like tea, tap water, sports drink
What is a solution? Like a homogeneous mixture- tea, sports drink
What is a solid? A state of matter that has a definite shape and volume
What is a liquid? A state of matter that has definite volume but no definite shape
What is a gas? A state of matter that doesn’t have a definite shape or volume
When you add heat to a substance how does that affect the motion of the particles? The kinetic energy rises (moves faster) and becomes more dense.
What happens when water molecules become a solid? It becomes ice and the molecules become further apart and less dense.
What happens when water molecules melt from a solid? They become more dense and move faster
What is the Atomic Number? The number of Protons
What is the Mass number? The number of protons and neutrons
How can you determine the overall charge of an atom if you know the number of protons and the number of electrons? Protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge
What must be true of the number of protons and neutrons in an electrically neutral atom? They have an equal amount.
What is a valence Electron? It is the electron on the outer most ring of an atom
How are isotopes of an element different from one another? They have different mass numbers
Where are metals located on the periodic table? left
Where are Non-metals located? upper right
Where are Metalloids? They are the dividing metals between Metals and non-metals
What is a general property of metals? Malleable and Ductile, good conductor, shiny and solid
What is a general property of non-metals? Liquid or gas, poor conductor, brittle
What is found in group one has one valence electron and is reactive and always bonds with nature? Alkali Metals
What is found in group two has 2 valence electrons is somewhat reactive always bonds other atoms in nature and example is beryllium? Alkaline Earth Metals
What is found in group 16 has 6 valence electrons and forms with metals? Chalcogens
Where are Halogens found? Group 17, has 7 valence electrons, Chlorine is an example.
Where are Noble Gases found? Group 18, has 8 valence electrons are STABLE and do not share electrons.
What kind of elements tend to gain electrons easily? Halogens
What kind of elements lose electrons easily? Metals
An example of an ionic compound is? Sodium Chloride
In an ionic bond what happens with the valence electrons? The element gives or loses one or more of their valence electrons to help make a stable 8 electron shell.
In a Covalent Bond what happens with the valence electrons? The elements share their electrons on their outer shell to get a stable compound.
Can Halogens bond with each other in a Covalent Bond? YES
Water and Carbon Dioxide is an example of what kind of bond? Covalent
What happens to valence Electrons in a metallic bond? They are joined together freely among metals
Will all metals except Hydrogen form a metallic bond? YES
Explain why metals are conductors while non-metals are insulators? Non-metals the valence electrons are tightly bound making them not form as a conductor like metals do.
What is a mineral? Natural occurring, solid, inorganic, fixed chemical formula, fixed chrystalline structure.
What are some Silicate mineral examples? Quartz
What are some examples of Non-silicate minerals? Gold, Diamond, Table Salt
This type of rock is formed by other pieces of rock or precipitated form of liquid? Sedimentary
This type of rock is formed by cooling and crystallization of Magma and Lava? Igneous
This type of rock is formed by heat pressure and chemical process? Metamorphic
2 main categories of Sedimentary rocks are? Detrital and Chemical
2 main categories of Igneous rocks are? Extrusive and Intrusive
2 main categories of Metamorphic rocks are? Foliated and Non-foliated
Sandstone, conglomerate shale, colomite and limestone are examples of what type of rock? Sedimentary
Basalt, Bridalite, Granite and Gabbro are examples of what type of rock? Igneous
Slate, Schist, Gneiss, Marble and Quartite are examples of what type of Rock? Metamorphic
Granite is? Intrusive Igneous
Conglomerate is? Detrital Sedimentary
Gneiss is? Foliated metamorphic
Limestone is? Chemical Sedimentary
Dolomite is? Chemical Sedimentary
Basalt is? Extrusive Igneous
The outermost layer, least dense, rigid and brittle rock, water and coldest layer of the earth? The Crust
Is located just below the crust made of Iron and Magnesium and has most of the Earth’s volume? The Mantle
Another name for the Crust and upper mantle area which is thin and brittle is called? Lithosphere
Another name for the lower mantle which is thick and plastic(bendy) like? Asthenosphere
This layer is the hottest layer made up of Iron and Nickel and is liquid form? Outer core
This is the innermost hottest layer that generates the magnetic field? Inner Core
P waves travel through what? Solid, liquid and gas
S waves pass through what? Solids transversely
How do we know that Earth’s mantle is solid? S-waves flow through it by not through the inner most core area
Where does Earth’s Magnetic field come from? The core- 2 fields pass through quickly causing field to charge.
What happens in a Convection current? Heat rises to top then outward and cools, the cold air sinks eventually rotating to distribute the heat evenly.
What is the continental drift? Plates moved apart- land used to be one giant mass
What is the role of convection currents in plate tectonics? Heat causes plates to shift and move.
Which plate boundary has crust spreading apart (volcanism), mountains, deep trenches and is located with mid ocean ridges? Divergent
Which plate boundary has plates moving together/ compression, creates volcanic islands and is located in Cascade and Himalya Mountains? Convergent
Which plate boundary has plates sliding past each other forms mountains and ocean ridge located along San Andreas Fault? Transform
Which plate moves by slanting down causing deep trenches? Oceanic-Oceanic
Which plate moves by slanting down forming large ocean trenches near land mass? Oceanic- Continental
Which plate moves by sliding past and the pressure moves up causing tall mountains? Continental-Continental
What kind of plate boundary would you expect to see with rift valleys? Transform
What kind of plate boundary would you expect to see with Subduction? Convergent
What kind of plate boundary would you expect to see in lateral faults? Transform
What kind of plate boundary would you expect to see with a mid ocean ridge? Divergent
What kind of plate boundary would you expect to see with a volcano? Convergent
What kind of plate boundary would you expect to see with chains of volcanic islands? Convergent
What kind of plate boundary would you expect to see with very tall non-volcanic mountains? Continental-Continental Transform
The breaking down of rocks into pieces is known as? Weathering
What is mechanical weathering? Physical breakdown of a rock
What is Chemical weathering? Change of minerals
What is frost wedging? Ice forms on and in rocks then thaws
What is Exfoliation? Top layer of rock removed
What is Thermal Expansion? Temperature changes rapidly causing rock to break/expand
What is Crystal Growth? Water forming on rocks
What has a forceful change to ground underneath where roots are growing? Tree Roots
What is sandpaper to the rocks? Abrasion
This type of chemical weathering the minerals react with each other? Dissolution
This type of chemical weathering the reaction of the mineral with oxygen forms rust? Oxidation
This type of chemical weathering the reaction of the mineral with water is? Hydrolysis
How does acid rain contribute to weathering? It eats away from the surface it comes into contact with
What is an erosion factor that occurs downhill causing floods and other things to come with it? Gravity
What are the layers of the earth from surface to space? Troposphere, Stratosphere, mesosphere, termosphere, exosphere
What is Ionosphere? When lined up the poles causes the northern and southern lights
What components are in the atmosphere in fixed components? Nitrogen, oxygen, argon
What components are in the variable amounts? Water vapor, carbon dioxide
What role does carbon dioxide play in the atmosphere? Greenhouse effect/ helps with plants
What causes the Coriolis Effect? Rotation affects the path traveled
What is an example of the Coriolis Effect? Airplane curves rather than flying straight to destination
What happens in weather when a low pressure center (cyclone) comes? Brings cooler unsettled weather
What happens in weather when a high pressure center (anticyclone) comes? Brings nicer weather
What does a cold front bring? Thunderstorms
What is a rotating column of air around low pressure? Tornados
What low pressure spins and warm water from ocean feeds it? Hurricanes
What is the greenhouse effect? Warming of atmosphere trapped greenhouse gases
What is the impact the Greenhouse effect has on the Earth? Keeps the earth warm
What things do we do that effects the levels of greenhouse gases? Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
What does a seismometer do? Measures earthquakes
What does the Richter scale measure? Ground movement in earthquake its location, size and depth/magnitude.
What are some examples of ecological studies performed at the population level? All of the organisms of a given species within a defined area
What are some examples of ecological studies performed at the community level? All living things in an area and how they interact
What are some examples of ecological studies performed at the Ecosystem level? All living and non-living things… soil, sunlight, rain, etc…
What are Abiotic factors? Non-living things
What are Biotic Factors? Living things
Describe examples of competition in ecosystems. 2 organisms are competing for the same resource- food, space, water, light
What components are included in a species’ niche? It is the characteristics of what each species needs, some need just one area of the same thing.
Commensalism? One benefits (Win-Draw)
Parasitism? One benefits at the cost of the other (win-lose)
Mutualism? Both benefit (win-win)
What is a biome? Region of the earth that are unified by having similar characteristics
Raining almost all of the time, hot, humid, and lots of plants year round with lots of animal diversity is an example of which biome? Tropical Forest
Rain, snow, seasons with hot summers and cold winters, trees, birds, squirrels, rabbits and foxes is an example of which biome? Temperate Forest
Drier than a temperate forest, harsh/cold winters, hot summers and drier, has lots of conifer trees (have cones) is an example of what biome? Coniferous Forest
Frozen ground, cold permafrost layer of soil is frozen, shrubby plants, litchens, mosses and reindeer type animals is an example of what biome? Tundra
Very dry, rarely rains, hot and dry temperature with cactus, lizards and snakes is an example of what biome? Desert
Extensive dry period with a wet period as well, pretty hot, zebras, lions and grasses is an example of what biome? Savanna
et, seasons and lots of grasses is an example of what biome? Temperate grassland
Wet, rainy winter, hot and dry summers, plants can grow all year but still survive during the heat found in California and Australia is an example of what biome? Chaparral
A Producer is? An organism that is able to make its own food, it doesn’t have to eat (plant)
An Autotroph? Self Energy- doesn’t eat (producer)
A consumer? Consumes/eats another organism to get energy
A Primary Consumer? Eats one thing
A secondary Consumer? Eats one thing that has eaten one thing
A Tertiary Consumer? Eats one thing that has eaten one thing that has eaten one thing
A Heterotroph? Gets it’s energy from a different source (consumer)
A Decomposer is? A special group of Heterotrophs that consume dead organic material (mushrooms)
Herbivores? only eats plants
Carnivores? only eats meats
Omnivores? Eats both plants and animals/meats
How does the transfer energy from the sun go through the food chain? The sun energy is used by producers and converted into chemical energy. Chemical Energy is used by consumers and decomposers through cellular respiration.
ow much energy is transferred between trophic levels? 10%
Why is energy lost to the environment during respiration? The energy is used up to eat etc…
What is the concept of natural selection? Habitat changes
Association of Variation with natural selection? Alternate colors or other alterations
Association of Heritable Traits with natural selection? Colors begin to be hereditary- alterations become hereditary
Association of Fitness with natural selection? Alternate coloration/ increased survival
Why are adaptations an important component of species’ survival? To survive you must adapt to your surroundings, both temperature and humidity etc..
Created by: sisbobbie