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Chapter 9

Head and Neck

Temporomandibular joint combined hinge & planar joint formed by the condylar process of the mandible & the mandibular fossa & articular tubercle of the temporal bone
Movement of Temporomandibular joint Depression, elevation, protraction, retraction, lateral gliding
What is the only moveable joint between skulls? Temporomandibular joint
muscles of facial expression frontalis, occipitalis, orbicularis oris, zygomaticus major, buccinator, platysma, orbicularis oculi
Frontalis draws scalp anteriorly, raises eyebrow, wrinkles skin
Occipitalis draws scalp posteriorly
Orbicularis oris closes and protrudes lips
Zygomaticus major draws angle of mouth superiorly & laterally (smiling)
Buccinator presses cheeks against teeth and lips (whistling, blowing)
Platysma depresses mandible
Orbicularis oculi closes eye
Muscles of mastication masseter, temporalis, medial& lateral pterygoid
Masseter & temporalis elevates & retracts mandible
Medial pterygoid elevates & protracts mandible
Lateral pterygoid depresses & protracts mandible
Digastric & mylohyoid Elevates hyoid bone & depresses mandible
Infrahyoid muscles omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid
sternohyoid 14 & 15 depress hyoid bone
sternothyroid depresses thyroid cartilage of larynx
Thyrohyoid elevates thyroid cartilage & depresses hyoid bone
Neck muscles Sternocleidomastoid
Sternocleidomastoid bilaterally: flex cervical vertebrae, extend head; unilaterally lateral flex & rotate head to side opposite contracting muscle
Scalene muscles bilaterally: flex head unlaterally: lateral flex & rotate head to side opposite contracting muscle
The brain receives blood from where? internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries
Internal carotid arteries no branches in neck & supplies structures internal to skull
Basilar artery formed by the left & right vertebral arteries
Vertebral arteries arise from subclavian arteries
How is the Circle of Willis form? anastomoses of left & right internal carotid arteries along with the basilar artery
What vessels make up the Circle of Willis anterior cerebral artery (L&R) anterior communicating artery internal carotid artery (L&R) posterior cerebral artery (L&R) posterior communicating artery (L&R)
What vessels drain in the internal jugular veins? all venous sinus, superior& inferior sagittal, straight & transverse sinus, sigmoid
3 layers of cranial meninges? dure, arachnoid, pia matter
Does the brain have the epidural space? no
What are the 3 dural septa? falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, tentorium cerebelli
What is the blood brain barrier? protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable environment for the brain
What form the blood brain barrier? continuous endothelium of capillary walls, relatively thick basal lamina, bulbous feet of astrocytes
What is the blood brain barrier function? allows nutrients to pass, ineffective against substances that can diffuse through plasma membranes, absent in some areas allowing these areas to monitor the chemical composition of the blood
Is the bbb the same as the bcfb? no
What structures produce the CSF? choroid plexus
What structures absorb it back to the sinus? arachnoid villi
What is the correct order as the CSF starting in the brain? lateral v. -> third v. -> cerebral aqueduct -> 4th v. -> subarachnoid space & central canal of spinal cord
What are the 2 regions of the brain stem involved in the control of respiration? medulla and pons
Brain stem 3 regions: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata contains embedded nuclei controls automatic behaviors necessary for survival provides pathway for tracts between higher & lower brain centers associated w/ 10 of 12 pairs of cranial nerve
What make up the tectum of the midbrain? four domelike protrusions of the dorsal midbrain (2 superior colliculi & 2 inferior colliculi)
Superior Colliculi visual reflex centers
Inferior Colliculi auditory relay centers
Medullar oblongata cranial nerve 8-12, pyramids: 2 longitudinal ridges formed by corticospinal tracts, decussation of pyramid: crossover points of corticospinal tract Function: cardiovascular control center, respiratory center, reflex center
Pons cranial nerves 5-8 connect higher brain centers & spinal cord, relay impulses between the motor cortex & the cerebellum function: minor respiratory centers
Midbrain cranial nerve 3&4 cerebral peduncles- 2 bulging structures that contain descending pyramidal motor tracts cerebral aqueduct- hollow tube that connects the 3rd & 4th ventricle
Which area/ structure maintains one's consciousness & awakening from the sleep? reticular formation: reticular activating system
functions of limbic system motivation, memory, emotion
Function of basal nuclei? selects purposeful activity, suppresses unwanted activity, inhibits muscle tone, monitors/ coordinates slow sustained contractions, inhibits thalamus
Parietal lobe primary- receives info from skin & skeletal muscles: touch, temp, pain somatosensory- integrates sensory info, forms comprehensive understanding of stimulus
Occipital lobe primary- receives visual info from retinas visual- interprets visual stimuli
Temporal lobe primary- receives info related to pitch, rhythm, & loudness Auditory- stores memories of sound & permits perception of sounds
Sulci shallow grooves
Gyri the folds
Folia is a wrinkle (gyrus) on the surface of the cerebellum
Vermis the rounded and elongated central part of the cerebellum, between the two hemispheres
What structure allows information to travel between the two cerebral hemispheres Corpus callosum
A midsagittal section of the brain would pass what structures? longitudinal fissure, corpus callosum, sagittal suture, superior sagittal sinus,
Brocas speech area is located in which lobe? frontal lobe
Function of broca's's speech area? control muscles of the larynx, pharynx, & mouth coordinates contractions of your speech & breathing muscles enable you to speak your thougths
Where is the pre central gyrus & its function? frontal lobe- primary motor cortex function: allows conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements
Where is the post central gyrus & its function? parietal lobe- primary somatosensory cortex function: receives info from skin & skeletal muscles: touch, proprioception, temp, pain
Frontal lobe structure pre central gyrus, composed of pyramidal cells whose axons make up the corticospinal tracts, premotor cortex
Frontal lobe function emotional expression, problem solving, memory, language, judgment, and sexual behavior. “control panel”
Thalamus structure makes up 80% of diencephalons, bridge of gray matter called intermediate mass joins right and left halves
Thalamus function major relay station for sensory impulses (except smell) allows for crude sensory awareness, positively reinforces voluntary motor activity
Hyothalamus structure located below thalamus, caps the brainstem & forms the inferolateral walls of the 3rd ventricle
Hyothalamus function regulates blood pressure, rate & force of heartbeat, perception of pleasure fear & rage, controls mechanisms needed to maintain normal body temp. regulates feelings of hunger & satiety, regulates sleep
Created by: _melgozacaroo15



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