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micro final

QuestionAnswer
sterilization no life form present
microbicidal kills microbes
bactericidal kills bacteria
fungicidal kills fungi
contaminated not sterile
sanitization not sterilization, just clean
microbiostatic causes tiny life forms not to grow [ex. - refrigerator]
pharmacology study of drugs
antimicrobial agents drugs used to treat infections
antibiotic metabolic production of one microorganism that kills or inhibits the growth of another microbe
selective toxicity selective inhibition of the growth of the microorganism without damage to the host
broad spectrum antibiotic active against several types of microbes
narrow spectrum antibiotic active against one or few types of microbes [best for treatment]
physical control of microbes heat, filtration, uv light, x-rays, gamma rays, dehydration, cold
chemical control of microbes disinfectant, antiseptic, chlorine, alcohol, soap, hydrogen peroxide
only way to destroy endspores autoclave [pressure and steam]
penicillin... acts by inhibiting transpeptidases
pathogenesis the ability to cause disease is dependent on the ability to overcome challenges
different reservoirs human, animal, environment
portals of entry skin, nose, eye, mouth, urethra, vagina, placenta
ID50 infectious dose for 50% test animals [the lower it is, the more likely it is to cause disease]
modes of transmission respiratory droplets, fomites, body contact, fecal-oral, arthropod vectors, airborne, parenteral
portals of exit nose, mouth, anus, genitals, blood
nosocomial infections are... healthcare associated infections, acquired in a hospital
types of nosocomial infections MRSA, C. diff, pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast, fungus, klebisella, E. coli
lines of defense against infection non-specific surface, non-specific interior, immune
inflammation pain, redness, swelling, heat
antigen foreign substance that triggers immune response in host
antibody protein produced by B lymphocytes that binds to antigens freely
where B cells mature bone marrow
where T cells mature thymus
IgG antibody activates component cascades
IgA antibody protects mucous membranes
IgM antibody primary immune response
IgD antibody signals B cells
IgE antibody stimulates degranulation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells
the ability to mount an efficient secondary antibody response depends on memory T & B cells
T lymphocyte stimulation leads to a type of immunity called cell-mediated immunity
the call that matures in the thymus gland is responsible for cell-mediated immunity
the first antibody produced in a primary antibody response is IgM
which of the following is the fastest response to an antigen? secondary immune response
which is not an effect of complement activation? enhanced T lymphocyte activity through thymus gland interaction
the uniqueness of an individual is defined in part by MHC proteins on the surfaces of individual cells [important in transplants]
which is the best definition for innate immunity? several non-specific defenses present from birth
neutrophils are those leukocytes that function phagocytes in body resistance
when clotting agents are removed from the blood serum
link between macrophages & neutrophils are phagocytes
which is not a lymphocyte? monocytes
which leukocytes are involved in acquired immunity? B lymphocytes & T lymphocytes
where is normal flora not found? the blood
degree to which organism is able to cause disease phagogenecity
botulism, tetanus, and diphtheria are distinguished by production of endotoxins
endotoxin shock may be observed to follow antibiotic treatment of a disease due to GRAM NEGATIVE bacteria
disease constantly present at low level in an area endemic
which is not a common cause of nosocomial infections? inefficient air handling mechanisms
a substance that has been pasteurized is not considered sterile
two draw backs to penicillin allergic reactions and drug resistance
MRSA is resistant to what? methicillin
cephlosporin & penicillin antibiotics act on cell wall of bacteria
nyastatin is recommended for candida albicans of intestines / oral cavity
kirby-bauer test is useful for determining which antibiotic should be used