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Chapter 2

Uniformitarianism The geological principal that the same processes that operate today operated in the past to change Earth's surface.
Erosion The process of wearing down and carrying away rocks.
Weathering The process that breaks down rocks and other substances.
Mechanical Weathering ilA type of weathering where rock is physically broken.
Chemical Weathering The process that breaks down rocks through chemical changes.
Abrasion Wearing rock by rock particles✊ carried by wind, ice , water, or gravity.
Frost Wedging Water freezes in rocks and expands which forces rocks apart.
Oxidation Iron combines with oxygen in the presence of water causing rust.
Permeable A material that is full of tiny connected air spaces that allows water to seep though it.
Soil The loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow.
Bedrock Rock that makes up earth's crust; also the solid rock layer beneath the soil.
Humus Dark-colored organic material in the soil.
Fertility A measure of how well soil supports plant growth.
Loam Rich fertile soil that is made up of equal parts of clay, sand, and silt.
PH Scale a range of values used to indicate how acidic or basic a substance is; expresses the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
Soil Horizon A layer of the soil that differs in colors and texture from the layers above or below it.
Topsoil The crumbly, topmost layer of soil made up of clay and other minerals and humus (nutrients and decaying plants and animal matter).
Subsoil The layer of soil below topsoil that has less plant and animal matter than topsoil and contains mostly clay and other minerals.
Decomposer An organism that gets energy by breaking down wastes and dead organisms, and returns raw materials to the soil and water.
Natural Resource natural resources, the natural wealth of a country, consisting of land, forests, mineral deposits, water, etc.
Soil Conservation any of various methods to achieve the maximum utilization of the land and preserve its resources through such controls as crop rotation, prevention of soil erosion, etc.
Crop Rotation the system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same ground, especially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weeds, diseases, and pests.
Contour Plowing plowing along the contours of the land in order to minimize soil erosion.
Conservation Plowing Conservation Plowing is a soil conservation method in which the dead stalks from the previous year's crop are left in the ground to hold the soil in place. Soil can be conserved through Conservation Plowing. Advantages
Created by: loopy