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Life of a cell

During the cleavage of cells, the early zygote transforms into a mass of undifferentiated cells. What happens here? (think DNA rep n mitosis) Rapid DNA replication and mitosis, but no growth!
The early mass of undifferentiated cells is called a ___ Blastocyst
what are the individual cells of the undifferentiated mass of cells called? Blastomeres
The blastula contains a fluid filled cavity. What is this called? blastocoel
What are the three layers of the gastrula? Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm
The opening left by the invagination to form the gastrula is called the ____ Blastopore
What does the endoderm form in to? Internal organs associated with GI, respiratory, excretory and reproductive tracts
What does the mesoderm form into? Lymphatic, Circulatory
What does the ectoderm form in to? Skin, Nervous systems
What does the notochord signal the ectoderm to do? Form a thick and flat neural plate
What becomes the CNS and what becomes the PNS in neurulation? Neural tube becomes CNS, neural crest becomes PNS
What is a stem cell? Unspecialised cell, capable of self renewal and giving rise to various differentiated cell types
Pluripotent stem cells Can differentiate into any cell type
Totipotent stem cells Differentiate into all cell types including placenta
Multi potent stem cells Can differentiate only into certain cell types (e.g haematopoetic stem cells)
What derm layer do multipotent stem cells come from? Mesoderm
What are the two main proteins involved in the cell cycle control? Cyclin, and cyclin dependent kinase
What is apoptosis? Programmed cell death
What is apoptosis activated by? Capsases
What is necrosis? Uncontrolled cell death
What causes necrosis? Burns, chemicals, infections, etc.
Suppression of what gene will suppress apoptosis? BCL2
what do mitogens do? stimulate mitosis
What are the four common phases of histological techniques? Fixation, Dehydration, Clearing, Embedding
Created by: Jake_Bark



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