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Science Term 2 Exam


Temperature Average energy in a molecule/ how hot or cold something is.
Thermal equilibrium When two objects in contact change temperature to equal to each other.
Liquid in glass Mercury or alcohol in a narrow tube of glass. When warmed it expands up the tube. Specific markings on the side give you the temp. (vice versa)
Thermistor Thermometer A ceramic bead on inside will resist the flow of electric current. As temperature decreases more electricity flows through the bead causing higher readings. A microchip transfers the info to a digital readout. (has to have a battery)
Liquid Crystal Contains crystals that melt and change colors at specific temperature. As crystals reacts and change color the temperature will be known
Heat Transfer Heat is the energy transferred from something of higher temp to something of a lower temp
Conduction Transfer of thermal energy by two objects in contact
Convection Transfer of thermal energy by the movement of fluid (any liquid or gas
Radiation Transfer of thermal energy across a space doesn't require any matter to transfer the energy Radiation does not require any matter to transfer the energy
Insulation Way to limit the of thermal energy Materials that don't easily allow thermal energy to be gained or lost Works for both hot and cold Icicles mean heat loss
Heat engines An engine that uses fuel to make thermal energy do work Heat engines are inefficient which means they use a lot of fuel per the output of heat that they produce. Much of the energy is lost to the surroundings ( parts heat up of to the air )
Cold heat engines Another kind of heat engine is one which makes air cold. Think refrigerators and air conditioners. These machines work in such a way to take heat out of somewhere and put it somewhere else
Periosteum Thin living cover on all bones
Compact bone Hard part of bone it contains minerals calcium and phosphorus
Spongy Bone Found near ends of bone. It is still very hard, but has a sponge like appearance
Bone Marrow Found in hollow areas of bones. A gel like substance
Yellow Marrow Long part of bone, mostly fatty material
Red Marrow In spongy and many flat bones makes new red blood cells, platelets, and most white blood cells
Bone development All bone begins as cartilage (soft flexible material) As you develop most cartilage turns into bone.
Rickets In children. It prevents normal bone growth. Bones become bent
Osteoporosis In elderly. Bone material becomes fragile and breaks easily
Osteoclasts Bone Builder Build now bones and minerals replaces bone material
Osteoblasts Bone destroyers Squirt an acid to dissolve bone to be replaced
Joints Places where two or more bones meet or are joined together Cartilage provides cushioning Ligament connects the bones together
Hinge Joint A hinge joint is a common class of joint that includes the ankle, elbow, and knee joints. HInge joints are formed between 2 or more bones
Pivot Joint Allows rotation one bone beside another lower arm and base of cranium and vertebrae
Immovable Sternum to ribs Cranium
Ball and socket Shoulder Hip / Groin
Gliding Vertebrae
Sprain Twisting or stretching or a ligament past the amount you are supposed to do
Tear When a ligament is completely or partially off of the bone
Nervous System Body system that sends messages to the brain and back out again to all parts of the body
Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System All of the sensory (senses) and motor (movements) nerves in the body.
Stimuli Signals from your body ( inside or outside ) Smells, sounds, sights, etc.
Response Reaction to the stimulus ( sent back by the brain ) The reaction could be absolutely nothing or could be to remember it or it could a movement or anything
Cerebrum Top of the brain, gray matter Handles thinking, senses, muscle movements Divided into left and right hemispheres
Right side of Brain Creative Artistic
Left side of Brain Logical Mathematical
Cerebellum Complex muscle actions with cerebrum (coordination and balance) E. G. riding a bike, sports, video games
Medulla Oblongata Brain stem Handles involuntary actions Keeps us alive Heartbeat Digestion Breathing Blinking Survival instincts Reflexes Fight of flight
Reflexes Different from normal neuron pathways in that they do not need to travel all the way to the cerebrum A reflex arc will take a message to the medulla oblongata or the spinal cord so it is handled faster or without you having to think about it
Headache Pain that can be caused by a number of factors. Usually only a worry if headache are recurring and severe ( migraines ) 10% of people experience these Sinus Cluster ( near eye ) Tension ( forehead ) Migraine ( half of head )
Concussion Closed head injury. From a fall or a blow to the head Brain is thrown against cranium Symptoms Usually clears in 3 to 5 days, but multiple concussions can build up and cause major problems
Parkinsons Disease where person loses body control Speaking Walking Daily tasks Early signs include tremors in the hands while at rest Will progressively get worse, no cure 1 in 200 people usually over 60 years
Stroke Caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain Blood clot or aneurysm ( burst blood vessel ) Usually people over 60 years old Can be massive or slight One third die One third disabled One third recover
Tumors Growth or cuts on or in the brain Can be cancerous or not Shows up in CAT scan May or may not cause problems. Depends on where they are
Hemiplegic Brain injury, usually a stroke Person shows paralysis in half of their body (left or right)
Paraplegic Spinal injury in lower back. Causes paralysis in lower parts of the body ( legs )
Quadriplegic Spinal injury in upper back or neck causes paralysis in all four limbs ( arms and legs )
Cell Basic unit of all living things
Alive It has to GROW It has to reproduce It has to use food for energy It has to respond to changes in its environment
Created by: adambatch



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