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Biology Terms

Cell parts/transport, Eco 1&2, Intro to Bio, Mitosis, Meiosis, Heredity

Prokaryote These cells do not contain a nucleus. Example- bacteria
Eukaryote These types of cells have a nucleus. Example- plant, animal
Nucleus The control center of the cell, where DNA is housed.
Ribosome Organelle that is the site of protein synthesis.
Cell membrane The semi-permeable boundary found in all cells that regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Cell wall Found only in plant cells, helps protect and support the cell.
Vacuole Storage containers for food and water. One large on in plants, many small ones in animals.
Cytoplasm Made mostly of water, gelatinous substance that the organelles of the cell are found in.
Chloroplast Found only in plant cells, site of photosynthesis.
Golgi body This organelle modifies, packages, and sorts proteins.
Endoplasmic reticulum Organelle sometimes covered with ribosomes, sometimes not. Act as a tunnel transport system through the cytoplasm.
Mitochondria Organelle where cellular respiration takes place. (Turning sugar into energy.)
Lysosome Small saclike structures filled with digestive enzymes, help clean up the cell.
Cilia/Flagella Hair like projections that help with movement
Cell The basic unit of life
Organelle A specialized cell structure that carries out specific functions
Genetics study of genes or heredity
Inheritance (heredity) how traits, or characteristics, are passed on from generation to generation.
Gregor Mendel The Father of Genetics
allele an alternative form of a single gene passed from generation to generation
Dominant The gene that is usually "shown"
Recessive the gene that is usually masked or covered up
Homozygous organism has two of the same alleles for a specific trait.
Heterozygous the organism has different alleles for a specific trait
Phenotype The observable trait is called the
Genotype the set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a particular trait
Phenotype The observable trait is called the
Law of Segregation the two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis
true-breeding "pure bred" a homozygous organism
hybrid heterozygous organism
Monohybrid crossing parents with different alleles for a single trait
Dihybrid crossing parents with different alleles for two or more traits in the same plant
Law of Independent Assortment A random distribution of alleles occurring during gamete formation
Punnett squares show how crosses are made and can calculate the probability of a trait that is passed on.
Pedigrees diagrams that trace the inheritance of a particular trait through several generations.
Simple Dominance a hetrozygous gene's dominant allele hides the trait of the recessive allele
Incomplete Dominance a hetrozygous gene's dominant allele and recessive allele have a "in between" phenotype.
Codominance both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition.
Carrying Capacity The maximum number of individuals of a particular species that an environment can support
Extinction The entire disappearance of a species
Emmigration The movement of organisms out of an area
Immigration The movement of organisms into an area
Habitat Fragmentation Splitting of ecosystems into peices
Primary Succession Succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present
Secondary Succession Type of succession that occurs in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbances
Limiting Factor Factor that causes population growth to decrease
Ecological Succession Series of gradual changes that occur in a community following a disturbance
Biodiversity The variety of organisms in the biosphere
Introduced Species A species that is not native to an area
Ecosystem All of the living and nonliving things in an area.
Community All the living things in an area.
Population A group of the same species in the same place.
Organism A single living thing. Example- Fox
Mutualism A close relationship where both species benefit.
Commensalism A close relationship where one organism benefits and the other is not affected.
Parasitism A close relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
Predation One organism is fed the other is dead.
Competitive Exclusion Principle states no two species can occupy the same niche at the same time.
Niche The job an organism has within an ecosystem, along with what it eats and what eats it
Abiotic Nonliving factors
Biotic Living factors.
Food Chain Shows the flow of energy in an ecosystem.
Food Web A series of connected food chains.
Symbiosis A close relationship between two organisms.
Osmosis The movement of water from an area of high concentration to low.
Diffusion The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low.
Hypertonic Concentration of dissolved substances is higher on the outside of the cell.
Hypotonic Concentration of dissolved substances is lower on the outside of the cell.
Isotonic Concentration of dissolved substances is the same on the inside and outside of the cell.
Passive Transport The movements of materials across the cell membrane without the use of energy.
Active Transport The movement of materials across the cell membrane with the use of energy.
Facilitated Diffusion The movement of materials from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration with the help of transport proteins.
Endocytosis Active transport, engulfing material into the cell.
Exocytosis Active transport of materials out of the cell.
Equilibrium Continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration of materials
Semi-Permeable Allows some substances in and out of the cell but not others.
Solvent Substance in which another substance is dissolved
Solute Substance dissolved in a solvent
Question How does ________________ effect ________________
Hypothesis Possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question. An "If then statement" If ________________ then _________________
Procedure somewhat detailed, step - by - step description of how you conducted your experiment. # number of steps
Data The data are the values written down as the experiment progresses
Graph A nice and neat way of organizing Data
Quantitative Data Deals with numbers, Data which can be measured, Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc.
Qualitative Data Deals with descriptions. Data can be observed but not measured. Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc.
Human Error Errors made by humans in a particular experiment.
Independent variable elements of an experiment that will change
Dependent variable Elements of an experiment that will not change. Also called controlled variable.
Cell Cycle The life cycle of a cell,a series of events that take place from one cell division to the next
Chromosome Structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material DNA
Mitosis The process our body cells use to divide the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei
Interphase Period of growth and development before cell division. When chromosomes are duplicated
Prophase chromatin condenses into chromosomes, nuclear envelope disappears, spindle fibers start to form
Metaphase chromosomes, chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
Anaphase The sister chromatid separate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart
Telophase chromosomes return to chromatin; nuclear membranes form; cleavage begins
Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm following mitosis and the forming of two new cells
Centromere area connecting sister chromatids
Sister Chromatid When a chromosome is duplicated the two identical parts are know as these
Cancer Uncontrolled cell division
Asexual Reproduction Type of reproduction where a new exact copy of one parent organism is formed
Stem Cell Biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells.
meiosis a process of cell division that allows organisms to reproduce
haploid cells cells that contain only one set of chromosomes
diploid cells cells than contain two sets of chromosomes, each set from each parent
zygote a female germ cell that has been fertilized by a male germ cell and inherits one set of chromosomes from each parent
gametes sex cells; including sperm and eggs
homologous chromosomes two chromosomes that are paired and have information about the same trait
somatic cells all cells besides egg or sperm cells
tetrad a four-strand group of chromosomes joined at a point
crossing-over an exchange of genetic material between two chromatids
Created by: Curt