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FDLE Vehicle Ops

FDLE Vehicle Operations

QuestionAnswer
In the event an explosive or other harmful device is detected an officer should Back away from vehicle and contact the personnel designated by the agency's policies
Improper balance or alignment over inflation or under inflation will result in Uneven wear
Inspection of proper fluid levels electrical wiring belts hoses and tires should be checked Daily
When inspecting rims on the vehicle you are looking for Dents cracks or DAMAGE TO THE BEAD
The fluid levels to be checked include the following Engine oil transmission brake power steering coolant reservoir and windshield washer
During inspection these are checked for fraying cuts cracking and gouges Belts
During inspection these are checked for dry rot cracking holes bulges and leaks Hoses
During inspection these are checked for fraying corrosion cracked or missing insulation and exposure Wires
Vision supplies this % of incoming data to a driver 90-95%
Sharpness of vision is known as Acuity
Ability to judge distance and perceive space to determine how far away an object is is know as Depth Perception
Ability to see above below and to the sides is known as Peripheral Vision
Ability to distinguish colors is known as Color Vision
Ability to see clearly in darkness is known as Night Vision
A person who has good peripheral vision can see from side to side how many degrees 180 degrees
To improve awarenes officers can make adjustments to their Meal times (eating smaller & more frequently meals) and lifestyle (getting sufficient rest and sleep before a shift)
Stress emotion fatigue and frequent shift changes are TEMPORARY FACTORS that can Weaken a driver's observation skills
High blood pressure diabetes heart conditions or epilepsy may also impair observation skills are Medical conditions
When striking or driving over an obstacle the officer should strike it at A slight angle with free rolling tires
Three types of wind are Head wind tail wind and cross wind
The most dangerous type of wind is Cross wind
Respresent the single greatest threat to safe vehicle operation Intersections
When avoiding Head-on Collisions officers reduce the effects by Reading the road reduce speed drive to the right drive off the road (think game of chicken)
If the officer must drive of the road and make contact should choose from the following in least risk to most dangerous Soft objects bushes small trees fences etc.). Objects moving in the same direction (including another vehicle). A fixed object (tree sign or parked car)
This establishes a minimum safe following distance for all vehicles and provides space and time for the driver to react to potentinal hazards Two-second Rule
Under poor road conditions or inclement weather officers should use the Four-second Rule
Always brake and accelerate in a Straight line
You should do this prior to every turn regardless of speed Break
When an officer is traveling at a higher than normal rate of speed driving during emergency response or traveling with other responding units the officer should use The four-second Rule
Every body continues in a state of rest or in a straight line unless physical forces compel it to change state is known as Newton's First Law of Motion
Acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net force acting on that body and inversely proportional to the mass of the body is known as Newton's Second Law of Motion
Pitch Roll and Yaw are all types of Vehicle Motion
Occurs during accleleration or braking. Motion transfers weight from front to rear or from rear to front Pitch
Occurs when turning and shifts the vehicle's weight from side to side Roll
is the end-to-end motion on a horizontal plane Yaw
The degree of pitch roll and yaw that a vehicle experiences affects the Vehicular Stability
When brakes are applied weight transfers in the direction of travel regardless Of the vehicle moving forward or backward
Is the distance from the center of a circle to the outside of the circle Radius
An increasing radius is a turn that gets Wider
A decreasing radius is a turn that gets Tighter
A 90-degree turn is considered to be a Constant Radius
Is the center point of any curve Apex
The vehicle's position in relation to the curve defines whether the vehicle is using one of the following three apex techniques Early center or late
In most cases this is the best cornering or turning method and why Late apexing technique allows the most room for driver error
The two general forces that act upon a vehicle when turning a corner are known as Centripetal Force and Centrifugal Force
Is the force that is necessary to keep a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed inward toward the center of rotation. Pulls in Centripetal Force
Is the force that is necessary to keep a vehicle moving in a curved path that acts outwardly away from the center of rotation. Pushes out Centrifugal Force
Is the tendency of a vehicle to turn less sharply than the driver intends Under steer
Excessive speed lack of traction on the steering tires and/or improper braking in a turn or curve may result in Under steering
Is the tendency of a vehicle to turn sharper than the driver intends Over steer
Higher speeds when the rear tires lose traction and excessive braking occurs in a turn or curve result in Over steer
Is the occurence that caruses the rear wheels to follow a tighter path in relation to the path the front wheels traveled in a turn Wheel tracking
For proper steering wheel grip the left and right hand should be placed Left hand at 9 o'clock and right hand at 3 o'clock
Is the forward motion that causess a vehicle to straighten from a turn when releasing the steering wheel Caster effect
When the driver presses the brake pedal by applying light pressure and gradually increases pressure to slow or stop as quickly as possible without locking the brakes or engaging the ABS is Threshold braking
This happens just before the tires lose traction during braking Incipient skid
This occurs just before the drive tires lose traction during acceleration Incipient spin
Is the result of the friction a vehicle's tires create on the road surface Traction
This is the best traction and occurs when the tires constantly rotate on the road surface without losing contact Rolling friction
Results when the wheels lock and do not turn while the vehicle is moving Skid
Results from loss of both rolling friction and traction Slide
Accelerating too much on a turn or a slick surface causes a Power slide
When recovering from a skid or slide once traction is regained you must use Counter steering
The two key elements to making a turn safely are Speed and vehicle placement
When relating to emergency mode operation officers should always revert to Their specific agency's policy and Florida law
Every authorized emergency vehicle shall be equipped with a siren whistle or bell capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than 500 feet
Is the most common night driving error Overdriving of vehicle headlights
Vehicle headlights with high beams on reveal a person 450 feet away
Vehicle headlights with low beams on reveal a person 150 feet away
Overdriving headlights reation distance field of vision loss of visual cues glare and emergency lights are all factors that may Influence driving performance at night
When driving at night in emergency mode emergency lights can Increase the amount of glare encountered
Looking off to the shoulder of the roadway to protect night vision while using the white line at the edge of the road for guidance is a Technique officers can use to improve thier vision while driving at night and react properly to oncoming traffic
Are measured changes to normal body functions Physiological effects
Exceeding your ability or vehicle's ability trying to "catch the bad guy at any cost" or "get there before anyone else" is a Physiological effect
Tunnel vision selective hearing increased heart rate time distortion and loss of spatial awareness or fine motor skills are examples of Physiological effects
When driving in emergency mode an officer should always offset the vehicle to the Left to increase visibility to other vehicles
Is an active attempt by an officer driving an authorized emergency vehicle (equipment activated) to apprehend occupants of a moving vehicle when speed increase takes other evasive actions or refuses to stop in an apparent attempt to avoid apprehension Pursuit
The decision to initiate a pursuit is the officer's to make and is contingent upon The officer's knowledge of agency policy and Florida Statues as well as current contions and circumstances
Following this is the best way to avoid liability in a pursuit scenario Agency policy
A pursuit has how many possible conclusions 5
Is the use of vehicles barricades cones or other objects to block traffic flow completely in all directions is A roadblock
This device is used to cause tire to deflate Tire-deflation device
PSI stands for? Pounds per square inch
Officers might have to handle problems themselves such as Changing a tire bulb or adding fluids
What should be inspected daily prior to operating the vehicle? Belts hoses and wires
What should the officer check prior to and after each shift? The back seat
Most common accident that officers are involved in? Backing
Vision supplies approximately ___% of incoming data to the driver 90-95%
Acuity is Sharpness of vision
Depth Perception is Ability to judge distance and percieve space to determine how far an object is
Peripheral Vision is Ability to see above below and to the sides.
Color Vision is Ability to distinguish colors
Night Vision is Ability to see clearly in the darkness
Medical Conditions that can weaken a driver's observation skills are High blood pressure diabetes heart conditions or epilepsey
Temporary factors that can weaken a driver's observation skills are Stress emotions fatigue and frequent shift changes
When an officer cannot avoid striking an obstacle the officer should strike it at A slight angle
Should high beam or low beam lights be used during foggy conditions? Low beam
A phantom vehicle is A vehicle that pulls out suddenly forcing the driver to take evasive action to avoid a collision
If forced off the road the safest objects to hit are Bushes small trees fences objects moving in the same direction trees signs or a parked car
What is the name of the rule that establishes a safe minimum following distance during good road conditions? Two second rule
What is the name of the rule that establishes a safe minimum following distance during poor road conditions? Four second rule
Pitch is Weight transfer from front to rear or vice versa which occurs during acceleration or braking.
Roll is Vehicle's weight shifts from side to side usually during turns
Yaw is The end to end motion on a horizontal plane
Radius is Distance from center of a circle to the outside of the circle
Increasing Radius is A turn that gets wider during the turn
Decreasing Radius is A turn that gets tighter during the turn
Constant Radius turn is a turn that remains the same throughout (for example a 90 degree turn at an intersection)
Apex is The center point of any curve
Early Apexing is Vehicle is steered so it is closest to the inside of the curve before reaching the apex
Center Apexing is Vehicle is steered so it is closest to the middle of the curve before reaching the apex
Late Apexing is Vehicle is steered so it is closest to the outside of the curve before reaching the apex
Which is the best Apexing Technique? Late Apexing
Centripetal Force is The force that is necessary to keep a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed INWARDS toward the center of rotation
Centrifugal Force is The force that is necessary to keep a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed OUTWARDLY from the center of rotation
Under Steer is The tendancy of the vehicle to turn less sharply than the driver intends
Over Steer is The tendancy of the vehicle to turn more sharply than the driver intends
Wheel Tracking is an occurence that causes the rear wheels to follow a tighter path in relation from the front wheels traveled in a turn
The hand placement on the steering wheel should be at 8 and 4 o'clock
The proper style of steering that helps the officer maintain control of the steering wheel is Shuffle Steering
Caster Effect is the forward motion that causes a vehicle to straighten from a turn when releasing the steering wheel
Does the Caster Effect apply in driving backwards also? No
Eye Targeting or Optical driving is looking in the desired direction of travel to avoid an obstacle and steering in that direction
Threshold Braking is pressing the brake pedal lightly while applying gradually increasing pressure to stop or slow as quickly as possible without locking brakes or engaging ABS
Incipient Skid is just before the tires lose traction during braking and the tires lock causing loss of steering control and a skid
Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a computerized enhancement that automatically slows or stops the vehicle
Incipient Spin is a spin that occurs before the drive tires lose traction during acceleration
Rolling Friction is The friction generated by the tires constantly rotating on the road surface without losing contact
Skid is when the wheels lock and do not turn while vehicle is moving
Slide is Wheels are rotating but do not control vehicle movement. Caused by loss of traction and rolling friction.
Driving in reverse requires MORE or LESS input to produce a change in direction? Less
While responding to an emergency call officers are required to use an audiable signal OR blue/red lights
While operating a vehicle in emergency mode the officer may 1) Park or stand illegally 2)run a red light or stop sign 3)exceed speed limits 4)disregard regulations regarding movement in specified directions
Although officers are empowered to where they may disregard laws other motorists must abide by they must remember You must drive with due regard for safety of all persons and don't protect an officer from the consequences of their reckless disregard for safety of others.
What is the most common night driving error? Overdriving of vehicle headlights
Low beam headlights project approxmiately ___ feet 150
High beam headlights project approximately ___ feet 450
How does night driving affect the reaction distance? Reaction time remains the same however lack of light increases the time required to initally observe a hazard
Less light ______ the field of vision narrows
At night the loss of visual cues causes officer's to lower their ability to judge distance and speed of oncoming traffic
Glare can be reduced by Looking to the right
Psychological Stress of driving in emergency mode consists of Exceeding vehicles ability by "catching bad guy at any cost or get there before anyone else"
Phsyiological effects of driving in emergency mode consist of tunnel vision selective hearing increased heart rate time distortion loss of spatial awareness or fine motor skills
Officers should always offset their vehicle to the ____ of the available roadway but within their lane Left
Pursuit is An active attempt by a LEO driving an AEV to apprehend the occupants of a moving vehicle. Subject must increase speed take evasive action or refuse to stop to avoid arrest.
Whos decision is it to initiate a pursuit? The officer's
DeShaney v Winnebago relates to Officer's must assume responsibility for an arrestees safety and keep them reasonably safe from harm after they have restricted the arrestees freedom of movement
Pinnelas Park v Brown relates to Law enforcement has a duty to protect the public when choosing to continue a pursuit (unmarked car hit a civilian vehicle white attempting to get ahead of the pursit "doctorine of negligence")
Brower v Inyo County relates to certain pursuit tactics might result in a claim of a constitional violation as a seizure by deadly force. (18 wheeler road block near a curve)
What other case is relevant to Brower v Inyo County? Tennessee v Garner
Sacramento v Lewis Officers may be liable if their actions "shock the conscience" of the court. For a pursuit the officer must have intended to cause harm to the violator withouth justification for the use of deadly force.
The "balancing test" came as a result of which case? Sacramento v Lewis
What is the "balancing test"? What officers must consider to engage continue or terminate a pursuit.
Scott v Harris PIT manuver was used to stop a violator for a traffic offense at a higher speed than reccomended for the PIT manuver. Officer was not indicted on any charges.
Pursuit has 5 conclusions 1) Violator stops voluntarily 2) Violator is stopped involuntarily 3) Officer terminates the pursuit 4) Violator crashes 5) Officer crashes
3 Pursuit Termination Techniques are Roadblocks Tire deflation devies or PIT
Roadblock is the use of vehicles barrivades cones or other objects used to block traffic. Purpose is to demonstrate police superiority.
PIT is using officers vehicle to apply force to side of violator's vehicle to end puruit
PIT stands for Pursuit Immobilization Technique
Can all officers use the PIT manuver? No only properly trained officers with the support of agency policy
It is essential to inspect a _______ before taking control of it and operating it on the road. Vehicle
For personal safety officers should perform inspections _________ and __________ every use of the vehicle. Before and after
Engine oil (measured in quarts).Break fluid.Coolant reservoir.Transmission fluid (meassured in pints)Power steering fluid.Windshield washer fluid. Fluid levels
It is essential to ensure _______ _______ while driving. Safe operations
________ ________ like Briefcases flashlights and coffee cups travel at the same speed as the vehicle. If an officer must stop abruptly unsecured items become severe hazards in the vehicle. Loose items
While officers cannot predict every driver's actions or what hazards may be encountered officers must be _______ to _________. Prepare / React.
Tips that officers should follow to prevent accidents. Learn to recognize driving situations that can be hazardous. Assume other drivers will make errors.Adjust speed position direction and attention to be able to maneuver safely if a hazard develops.Scan far enough ahead to be able to react safely to approac
What an officer should do if safety hazard exists? He / She should pull the vehicle off the road to a safe location and notify dispatch. ( also know as the public safety communicator)
Vision supply approximately ____ _____of incoming data to a driver. 90% / 95%
Sharpness of vision. Acuity
Ability to judge distance and pensive space to determine how far away an object is. Depth perception
Ability to see above below and to the sides (a person that is in a stationary vehicle and who has a good peripheral vision can see about 180 degrees from side to side ) . Peripheral vision
Ability to distinguish colors. Color vision
Ability to see clearly in darkness. Night vision
Lets officers locate source of Sounds that may indicate a problem with a vehicle a suspicious incident or a crime. Hearing
If an officer detect and usual Odor while operating a vehicle he or she should determine whether the Odor is coming from the patrol vehicle or from an outside source. Smell
Can help an officer detect problems that can affect vehicle operation and control. For example steering wheel vibration have a steering or tire problem. Touch
Some temporary factors can weaken a driver's observation skills. This include ________________________ and __________ ________. Stress emotions fatigue and frequent shift changes.
Officers should drive ____ or ______ the posted speed limit so they can observe and respond appropriately to the environment. At / Bellow
While driving or just may encounter asphalt concrete clay dirt gravel air bricks roadways. Variable road surfaces
Officers should be aware that a fire can start if the vehicle is left running while parked over a __________ _________ for an extended period of time. Grassy Area
To improve awareness officers can make adjustments to their _________ ______ and ________ ________ such as eating smaller meals frequently throughout the shift and getting sufficient rest and sleep before a shift. Meal times / Life style
This rule applies at the posted speed limit when weather road conditions are good. 2 seconds rule
Under poor road conditions or in inclement weather officers should use this rule. 4 seconds rule
Some temporaty factors can __________ drivers observation skills. These include stress emotions fatigue and frequent shift changes. Weaken
Medical conditions such as high blood pressure diabetes heart conditions or epilepsy may also ________ observation skills. Impair
When an officer can't avoid striking or driving over obstacles the officer should strike it on a _________ _______ (when possible) with free rolling tires. Slight angle
A nonporous supportive surface. Concrete
A porous distributive surface. Asphalt
Often become wet when driven through deep water or heavy rain. Breaks
Most Frequently crashes Side swipes. Right-angle collisions at intersections. Collisions with fixed objects. Accidents caused by improper baking. Head-on collisions.Rear-end Collisions.
Officers should be especially careful at ___________ as they represent the single greatest threat to safe vehicle operation. Intersections
Avoiding head on collisions. An officer can act to avoid a collision or reduce its effect by reading the road that is by examining surrounding for obstacles . The officer can also reduce speed to increase the time to react.Driving to the right Give the other vehicle more space and pu
If an uncoming vehicle forces an officer off the road the officer can potentially reduce the chances of injury by attempting to select _____ _____ ____. What to Hit
What to hit (Items listed from least to most dangerous) Soft objects (bushes small trees fences etc.).Objects moving in the same direction (including another vehicles).A fixed object ( tree sign or parked car)
If the officer cannot avoid hitting a fixed object or and oncoming vehicle The Officer should hit the object with ____ ___ ___ _______ rather than a head-on glancing off the object or vehicle. Side of the vehicle
(Known as the tire contact patch) most law enforcement Vehicles pressed on four __ ____ _________. 6 inches squares
Occurs during acceleration or breaking and cause the transfer of a vehicle's weight from front to rear or rear to front. Pitch
Occurs when turning. This shifts the vehicle's way from side to side. Roll
Is the transfer of a vehicle's weight causing and end for end motion resulting in the vehicle turning 180 degrees on a horizontal plane. Yaw
The center of gravity on the most stable vehicle is ________ and ________. Low / Centered
Occurs when the vehicle's speed changes and influences the vehicle's handling ability. The more dramatic the breaks or accelerator are applied the more dramatic the Weight transfer and it's effects. Weight transfer and distribution
When a vehicle turns a corner weight transfers toward the tires on the _______ of the turn. The front __________ wheel carries the most weigh. Outside / Outside
The officer should always ________ before turning and then steer into the turn. Breaks
Is the distance from the center of a circle to the outside of the circle. A turn or curve is a portion of a circle Radius .
Is a turn that gets wider during the turn much like a circle getting larger. Increasing radius
Is a turn that gets tighter during the turn much like a circle getting smaller. Decreasing radius
Is a turn that remains the same throughout getting neither wider nor smaller. Constant radius
Is the center point of any curve. Apex
Is when the vehicle is steered so it is closest to the inside of the curve before reaching the apex. This technique increase centrifugal force and can cause loss of control. Early apexing technique
When the vehicle is steered closest to the middle of the curve. Center apexing technique
When the vehicle is steered so it passes closest to the inside of the curve after reaching the apex. This technique decrease centrifugal force reducing the potential for loss of control. Late apexing technique
Which is the best cornering or turning method? It is the Late apexing technique
(Tire traction) the force that is necessary to keep a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed inward toward the center of rotation. A force that acts on a body moving in a circular path and is directed toward the center. Centripetal force
Is the force acting on a vehicle moving in a curved path that acts outwardly away from the center of rotation. An apparent force that acts outward on a body moving around a center arising from the body's inertia. Centrifugal force
_________ and ________ also greatly affect the weight transfer of the vehicle which in turn affects the driver's control of the vehicle. Speed / Steer
Is the tendency of a vehicle to turn less sharply than the driver intends. The cause of _______ ______ may be a combination of excessive speed lack of traction on the steering tires and improper braking in a turn or curve. Off the road. Under steer
Is the tendency of a vehicle to steer into a sharper turn than the driver intends sometimes with a loss of traction of the rear to the outside. ________ ________ generally occurs at higher speeds when the rear tires lose traction and excessive breaking oc Over steer
The correction for ________ _______ is to remove the foot from the accelerator maintaining steering input but do not apply brakes and if necessary steer the car to a safe place and stop. Under steering
Is an occurrence that cause the rear wheels to follow a tighter path than the path the front wheels traveled in a turn. Wheel tracking
How do we hold the steering wheel? Firm yet relaxed grip
It is recommended officers place their right hand in the _________ position and their left hand in the __________ position. 4 o' clock and 8 o' clock
Officers should perform the ______ ______ technique to make the right turn and a left turn. Shuffle steering
Is the forward motion that causes a vehicle to straighten from a turn when releasing the steering wheel. Caster effect
Optical driving is looking in the desire direction of travel to avoid obstacle and steering in that direction. This is also referred to as ____ ________. Eye targeting
With _________ ________ _________ the driver presses the breaker pedal with increasing pressure to slow or stop as quickly as possible. Proper breaking technique
Happens just before the tires lose traction during breaking. Incipient skid
Enhancement to the convencional braking system called " anti-lock braking system" is now standard equipment on late model vehicle's. This type of motor vehicle braking system electronically monitors and controls each of the wheels during braking to keep t ABS
What does ABS mean? Anti-lock Braking System
Occurs just before the tires lose traction during acceleration. Incipient Spin
Traction is the result of the friction a vehicle's tires create on the road surface. The best traction is _____ _____ which is when the tires constantly rotate on the road surface without losing contact. Rolling / Friction
What is the best traction? It is Rolling Friction
Results when the wheels lock and do not turn while the vehicle is moving. Skid
Results from loss of both rolling friction and traction. The wheels still rotate but they do not control the vehicle's movement. Slide
Requieres entering an intersection safely and properly at normal driving speeds and making a 90-degree turn to the right or left. Cornering
The majority of law enforcement vehicle crashes are a result of ________ into a fixed object. Backing
Driving in reverse requieres _____ ________ input to produce a larger change in direction. Less steering
The most common night driving error is to overdrive the distance the vehicle's headlights project. Overdriving of vehicle headlights
Reaction time remains the same whether driving during the day or night. However lack of light increases time required to initially observe a hazard________. Reaction distance
At night peripheral vision decrease. Less light narrows the _____________. Field vision
At night it is easy to lose many visual cues that are available during the day which lowers the ability to judge distance and the speed of oncoming traffic. Loss of visual cues
________ from oncoming vehicle's or other outside sources can temporarily blind a driver. When driving at night human eyes adjust to the lack of light and use night vision. When the lights suddenly changes eyes needs time to readjust. Glare
When driving in emergency mode emergency lights can increase the amount of glare encountered. The hight intensity of the___________ easily reflects objects. Emergency lights
_________ Stress May cause you to exceed your ability or your vehicle's ability in trying to catch the offender at any cost or get there before anyone else. Psychological
Always keep in contact with the ____________ and _____ __________ __________ when driving in emergency mode. Dispatcher / Other responding units
What is the goal of pursuit? It is to Apprehend a fleeing violator.
An officer _______ ______ let a violator's driving dictate the officer's driving. Must Never
______is an active attempt an officer driving an authorized emergency vehicle (with emergency equipment activated) to apprehend occupants of a moving vehicle. Pursuit
The five possible conclusions of a Pursuit. 1- The violator stops voluntarily.2- The violator is stop involuntarily. 3- The officer ends the pursuit without apprehending the violator.4- The violator crashes.5- The officer crashes.
Is the use of vehicles barricades cones or others objects to block traffic flow completely. It's purpose is to demonstrate overwhelming police superiority and position so that the violator will stop and surrender. Roadblock
__________ Is the purpose of this technique is to stop a violator's vehicle by using the police vehicle to apply force to either the rear right or left side of the violator's vehicle to end the pursuit. PIT (Pursuit Immobilization technique)
When a vehicle turns a corner weight transfers toward the tires on the _______ of the turn. The front __________ wheel carries the most weigh. Outside
__________ is when the tires constantly rotate on the road surface without losing contact. Rolling friction.
What PIT stands for? Pursuit Immobilization Technique
How should Long and protruding equipment ( long guns long handle tools etc) be stored ? across the width of the trunk (side to side not front to back)
Where could the recommended PSI for tire inflation be found? On the doorjam.
When does weight transfer and distribution occurs? When the vehicle's speed changes and influences the vehicle's handling ability.
Inspection of the vehicles exterior also includes ________ and ________. Tires / Rims
Why should tires be checked for? Uneven wearOver inflationUnder inflation
What causes a power slide? Accelerating too much on a turn or a slick surface.
Why should be Rims inspected for? Dents Cracks Damage to the bead.
What are several factors that may influence driving performance at night? Acuity depth perception peripheral vision color vision and night vision
How far can a vehicle headlights reveal a person? 450 feet with high beems and 150 feet with low beems.
What is the most common night driving error? Overdriving of vehicle headlights.
Most Frequently crashes ? Side swipe Right angle collision at intersections Collision with fix objectsimproper backingHead on collisionRear end collision
Although they are designed to disperse water tires sometimes do what? Hydroplane.
Where does 4 seconds rule applies? Construction ZoneHighe Rates of speedEmergency Responsesbad weather fogsmokeon coming headlights and street lightshazards and debris.
What are the three types of vehicle motion? Pitch Roll Yaw
As an officer applied the brakes weight transfers in the direction the vehicle is traveling. Forward or Backwards
When does wheel tracking occurs? Any time we make a turn
What is counter steering? Is turning the wheels in the direction you want to go.
The measurable changes to normal body functions. This include tunnel vision selective hearing increase heart rate time distortion and loss of spatial awareness or fine motor skills. Physiological Effects
Deadly force should not be used to apprehend citizens for minor violations. The issue of Deadly force use in a police pursuit. ( Do not use Non-Police vehicles to block the road ). Brower v. Iyo County
Roadblocks must be positioned so the violator has sufficient time to stop. City of Pinellas Park v. Brown decision
Which case stated that law-enforcement has a duty to protect the public when choosing to continue a pursuit City of Pinellas Park v. Brown.
Law enforcement has a duty to protect the public when choosing to continue a pursuit. DeShaney v. Winnebago County Department of Social Services
Special Relationship Statute. The US Supreme Court stated that an officer has no duty to guarantee a person's safety unless a special relationship exists between the police and that person. When someone is under your custody is your duty to take care of t Sacramento v. Lewis
Pursuits that involved death or great bodily harm it Is Decided case by case basis. Test pursuit has to be balanced. Scott v. Harris 2007
Hight speed increases stopping distance and decreases ________ ________. Reaction Time
The purpose of a Roadblock is to demonstrate overwhelming police superiority and position so that the violator will stop and surrender. True or False ? TRUE
Accelerating too much on a turn or stock surface causes . This happens when the driver over-accelerates and the tires spin the wheels are not locked but the driver has lost traction. Power Slide
The _____ and _____ second rule establishes a minimum safe following distance. 2 and 4
facing the steering wheel the bottom center of the wheel is in the 6 o'clock position
facing the steering wheel the top center of the wheel is in the 12 o'clock position
RIGHT hand on the 4'oclock position
LEFT hand on the 8 o'clock position
if officers turn right they should move the __________ hand into the 12 o'clock positon at the top of the steering wheel and pull the steering wheel down in a smooth motion into a right turn. right
if officers turnleft they should move the __________ hand into the 12 o'clock positon at the top of the steering wheel and pull the steering wheel down in a smooth motion into a left turn. LEFT
______is the forward motion that causes a vehicle to straighten from a turn when releasing the steering wheel. caster effect
optical driving is looking in the desired direction of travel to avoid an obstacle and steering in that direction eye-targeting
______are the front tires on a front- wheel drive vehicle or rear tires on a rear-wheel drive vehicle Drive Tires
control of a vehicle depends on Traction
is the result of the friction a vehicle's tires create on the ROAD SURFACE Traction
The best traction is ____________ friction rolling
results when the wheels LOCK and do not TURN while the vehicle is moving. rolling friction and traction are lost. skid
results from loss of both rolling friction and traction. the wheels still rotate but they do not control the vehicle's movement. slide
happens when a driver over-acceleratess and the tires sping the wheels are NOT locked but the driver has lost traction power slide
cornering reqiures entering an intersection safely and properly at normal driving speeds and making a 90 degree turn to the right or left.
proper braking is an important element of negotiating a turn
remains the same whether driving during the day or night. reaction time
field of vision- at night peripheral vision decreases. less light narrows the field of vision
at night it is easy to lose many ? visual cues that are available during the day which lowers the ability to judge distance and the speed of oncoming traffic.
glare from oncoming vehicles or other outside sources can temporarily BLIND A DRIVER.
when driving at night human eyes adjust to the lack of light and uses night vision
when driving in emergency mode emergency lights can increase the amount of _____________ encountered. glare
how to correct under steering? remove the foot from the accelator MAINTAIN steering input but do not apply brakes and if necessary steer the car to a safe place and stop
how to correct over steering? remove the foot from the accelerator and/or brake steer the car where DESIRED (when the front tires have not lost traction) refrain from applying the brakes and if necessary steer the car to a safe place and stop
steering has a directed relationship on vehicle dynamics vehicle handling and traction control
_______is the tendency of a vehicle to turn LESS sharply than the dricer intends under steer
_______is the tendency of a vehicle to steer into a SHARPER turn than the driver intends sometimes with a loss of traction of the rear to the outside over steering
the early apex INCREASES __________________ force and can cause lause of control centrifugal
the late apex _________ __________________ force reducing the potential for loss of control Decreases centrifugal
_______is how the vehicle is steered in relation to a curve's apex while maintaining your lane apex technique
safely negotiating a tight turn requires ? less speed and more steering input
the ____________ should rest on the rim of the steering wheel and never hold the wheel too tight thumb
hold the steering wheel with a firm yet relaxed grip
Particular concern on FLORIDA roadways is ? Oil and tar
If wear bars are even with tread surface the tires will not__? Dissipate fluids / Water
Large or quick steering movements may cause uncontrolled _____? Oscillation
In emergency mode the officer should always offset his vehicle to the __ LEFT
Always keep in contact with the ____ when responding in emergency mode Dispatcher
What are examples of pursuit termination techniques? Roadblocks tire deflation devices and pit
According to ___ a roadblock must be positioned so the violator has sufficient time to stop Brower vs. county of inyo
Law enforcement has a duty to protect the public when choosing to continue a pursuit Pinellas park vs. brown
Certain pursuits tactics might result in a claim of a constitutional violation as a seizure by deadly force Brower vs. inyo county
The case of how a officer would be judged responsible for injury or death caused by pursuit or emergency response Lewis vs. county of Sacramento
What must officers consider when deciding to engage in continue or terminate a pursuit Balancing test
A police officer attempts to terminate a dangerous high speed chase that threatens the lives of innocent bystanders does not violate the fourth amendment even when the fleeing motorist is at risk of serious injury or death Scott vs. Harris
Created by: marioafajardo