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Inflammation of nasal mucous membrane Causes of acute symptoms: common cold, bacterial infection, presence of foreign body, drug-induced congestion (rhinitis medicamentosa) Rhinitis
Caused by allergic reaction on exposure to allergens such as pollens, grasses, dust mites Releases large amounts of histamine Allergic rhinitis
Identify allergens (skin testing) Avoid exposure to allergens, if possible Antihistamines, decongestants, intranasal anti-inflammatory agents Saline nasal spray to reduce nasal irritation Allergic rhinitis
Most common in midwinter, spring, and fall Cold Virus
Clear, watery nasal discharge, sneezing Cough, mild sore throat Headache, malaise, chills, and fever Should resolve over 5 to 7 days Cold Virus
Thick, tenacious mucus obstructs sinus ducts Sinusitis
nfection of the middle ear Otitis media
Contact health care provider if symptoms worsen, or additional symptoms appear with a cold Exacerbations of obstructive lung disease, asthma
Limited to relief of symptoms Decongestants are most effective agents Antihistamines are of some benefit Analgesics, antipyretics, expectorants, antitussive agents also beneficial, depending on symptoms Common cold
Emphasize importance of adequate rest, hydration, personal hygiene, prevention of spread Discuss specific medications prescribed and when to take medication . Explain proper technique in administering medications . Teach to monitor temperature, pulse, re Patient Education and Health Promotion
Stimulate alpha-adrenergic receptors of nasal mucous membranes causing vasoconstriction Actions Sympathomimetic Decongestants
Relieve congestion associated with rhinitis Sympathomimetic Decongestants
Reduced nasal congestion, easier breathing Therapeutic outcomes Sympathomimetic Decongestants
Mild nasal irritation Adverse effects Sympathomimetic Decongestants
Serious adverse effect: hypertension Sympathomimetic Decongestants
Used with caution in patients with hypertension, hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, increased intraocular pressure, or prostatic hyperplasia Sympathomimetic Decongestants
State laws regulate purchase of pseudoephedrine, one ingredient in methamphetamine manufacture Sympathomimetic Decongestants
Combining with MAOIs results in significant hypertension Sympathomimetic Decongestants
Actions Compete with allergy-liberated histamine for H1 receptor sites Antihistamines
Uses Treat allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis Antihistamines
Therapeutic outcomes Reduced symptoms of allergic rhinitis Antihistamines
Common adverse effects Sedative effects, cognitive impairment, drying effects Antihistamines
Anticholinergic adverse effects Dry mouth, stuffy nose Blurred vision Constipation, urinary retention May make respiratory mucus thicker Antihistamines
Patients with history of asthma, prostatic enlargement, or glaucoma should take antihistamines only with health care provider supervision Antihistamines
intranasal corticosteroids cromolyn sodium (Nasalcrom) Respiratory Anti-inflammatory Agents
Actions Reduce inflammation; mechanism of action unknown intranasal corticosteroids
Uses For patients who do not respond to antihistamines or sympathomimetic agents intranasal corticosteroids
Therapeutic outcomes Reduced rhinorrhea, rhinitis, itching, sneezing intranasal corticosteroids
Common adverse effect Nasal burning intranasal corticosteroids
Actions Stabilize mast cells, reducing the release of histamine and other mediators cromolyn sodium (Nasalcrom)
Uses In conjunction with other drugs to treat severe allergic rhinitis cromolyn sodium (Nasalcrom)
Common adverse effect Nasal burning cromolyn sodium (Nasalcrom)
Serious adverse effects Bronchospasm, coughing cromolyn sodium (Nasalcrom)
Usefulness is often limited because of the need for frequent dosing. cromolyn sodium (Nasalcrom)
May be most beneficial when used as a prophylactic treatment before an anticipated allergen exposure or in patients whose medical conditions do not allow the use of other medications (e.g., pregnancy). cromolyn sodium (Nasalcrom)
Created by: TutorDavis17