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chapter 11,12,13

QuestionAnswer
List the three steps/phases in the formation of glacial ice. glacial ice forms from compaction. ablation, distrubution.
how accumulation or ablation causes a glacial to advance or retreat? greater accumulation the glacier grows and terminus advances. lower accumulation the glacier shrinks, terminus retreats
hanging valley? type of u shape valley, suspended some feet from valley floor.
tarn? glacier eroded lake
cirque? half bowl, steep on three sides.
horn? peak formed by scour erosion. tends to be pointy
arete? knife edge ridge, seperates one valley from another. thin narrow ridge
u-shaped valley? they have a characteristic U shape, with steep, straight sides and a flat bottom.
moraine? a mass of rocks and sediment carried down and deposited by a glacier, typically as ridges at its edges or extremity.
till? unsorted material deposited directly by glacial ice and showing no stratification
outwash? material carried away from a glacier by meltwater and deposited beyond the moraine.
what is crevases? a deep open crack, especially one in a glacier.
what is sea level? is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
what is porosity? the ability of a rock to hold water. a simple percentage, how much of the rock is actually rock.
what is permeability? how easily water can go through the rock. the ability to transmit water.
what is Water Table? simply the upper surface of the zone of saturation. not fixed in time. wet periods=high water table
what are the subsurface groundwater zones? water table, saturated zone, unsaturated zone, confined aquifer, unconfined aquifer.
saturated zone? the area in an aquifer, below the water table, in which relatively all pores and fractures are saturated with water
unsaturated zone? the portion of the subsurface above the groundwater table.
confined aquifer? more reliable, seperated from surface by confining layer. deeper. fewer fructuations recharge must pass through aquitard
unconfined aquifer? recharge easily gets in fluctuates weather
what is an aquitard? slows down water flow, low permeability.
groundwater contamination? Due to slow movement, contaminated groundwater is much more difficult to address than contaminated surface water.
origin of caves? naturally ocurring underground chamber. groundwater dissolves rock leaving caves. occurs in soluable rock like limestone
three necessary elements to make a cave? soluble rock (gypsum, dolomite,limestone), groundwater pressure, and fractures
artesian wells? wells that flows to surface naturally
karst? areas of soluble rock with caves, sinkholes, and dry spring beds. problem with karst theres nothing to slow down water. vulnerable to contaminent no filtration
recharge? any activity that brings water to the ground
subsidence? gradual large scale sinking of ground due to removal of boyount ground water
aquifer? is a body of rock or sediment through which water passes easily
discharge? removal of water from the ground
sinkhole? result of rock being dissolved. it is sudden and it is a local collapse
confing layer? is a layer of sediment or rock which has low permeability. It does not allow water to easily pass through it, so it can protect the water beneath it from contamination.
cone of depression? inversion of water table. water flows down in a cone shape
what is a desert? are defined by lack of precipitation, running water is still the dominant agent shaping their landforms.
internal drainage? Drainage in a closed basin and not reaching the sea
mesa? an isolated flat-topped hill with steep sides
playa? an area of flat, dried-up land, especially a desert basin from which water evaporates quickly.
bajada? a broad slope of alluvial material at the foot of an escarpment or mountain.
What is the dominant agent of land sculpture in deserts? running water is still the dominant agent shaping their landforms.
What is the dominant rock structure (orientation) in the Colorado Plateau? streams erode the horizontal rock,result is horizontal-top landforms, such as buttes/mesas and plateaus, separated by canyons
List two reasons that wind is more effective in deserts than humid regions. it's stronger, there is less vegetation, and wind cant pick up wet sediments.
Created by: sanchezdaniel