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Micro test 3

QuestionAnswer
1. Microbes that produce the antimicrobial chemicals that inhibit the growth of other microorganism in the same habitat are exhibiting what type of behavior? Antagonism
2. Drugs that effect the bacterial cell well are active only against what type of cells? Young, Actively Growing
3. What was the first disease to be treated with a specific chemical? Syphilis
4. The golden age of antibiotics began in 1928 with Sir Alexander Fleming’s discovery of an antibacterial compound he called what? Penicillin
5. Antimicrobial drugs that are derived from the natural processes of some microorganism and that can inhibit or destroy other microorganism are specifically known as what? Antibiotics
6. How are drugs that block the synthesis of folic acid able to maintain selective toxicity? Bacteria must synthesize folic acid, while humans acquire it from their diet
7. What portion of penicillin is responsible for difference in each compounds activity? The variable side chain
8. Aminoglycoside drugs are products of what group of microorganisms? Soil actinomycetes
9. What microorganism has the distinction of being one of nature’s most prolific antibiotic producers? Streptomyces sp.
10. What was the drug used to treat individuals exposed to Bacillus anthracis endospores in 2001? Ciprofloxacin
11. Why do fungal infections present special problems in terms of treatment? Because both fungi and humans are eukaryotes
12. Why are viral infections especially difficult to treat? Because they rely upon their host cells for the majority of their metabolic functions
13. What is a logical antiviral drug target in retroviruses? Reverse transcriptase
14. The greatest number of anti-microbic allergies is reported for what drug? Penicillin
Why are human bites especially dangerous? Because the oral cavity and saliva contain high numbers of bacteria
What are the first organisms to colonize the upper respiratory tract? Oral streptococci
What keeps the kidney, ureter, bladder, and upper urethra sterile Flow of urine
What greatly influences the presence and numbers of transient flora? Hygiene
What factor prevents the stomach from being colonized by most microbes? Acids
Characteristics that axenic animals display? Shortened life span
The greatest number of pathogens use what as a portal of entry? Respiratory tract
What Characteristic affects the extent to which an organism is carried into the bronchial tree following inhalation? The size of the microorganism
What exo-enzyme secreted by the some pathogenic microorganisms digest the principal’s fibers of connective tissue and is an invasive factor for some microorganism? Collagenase
During which stage of clinical infection does the patient experience vague feelings of discomfort, such as head and muscle aches, fatigue, upset stomach, and general malaise? Prodromal stage
What is the pattern of infection where the infection itself remains localized at the portal of entry, but the toxins produced by the pathogen are carried by the blood to the actual target tissue? Toxemia
What are the signs of an infection? Cough
What is the clinical term for bacteria multiplying in the blood? Septicemia
Which microorganism does not cause a lent infection? Polio
What term is defined as the number of new cases of disease over a certain time period, as compared with the general healthy population? Incidence
Example of microbial reservoirs? All except Vectors
“Typhoid Mary” was an example of what type of disease carrier? Chronic
The physical barriers that serve as the first line of defense against infection include all except which of the following Lysozyme
What physical barrier protects the trachea and bronchi against infection? Ciliated epithelium
Where is lysozyme, the enzyme that hydrolyzes, peptidoglycan, found in the body? In saliva and tears
What fluid- filled compartment does not participate in immune function? Cerebrospinal
Why the reticuloendothelial system is considered intrinsic to immune function? Because it provides a passageway within and between tissues and organs
What type of white blood cell is heavily concentrated within the recticulo-endothelial system? Macrophages
White blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets all arise from what type of progenitor cells? Pluripotential stem cells
What type of cell is involved in blood clotting and inflammation? Platelets
The agranulocytes include all of the following cell types except which? Neutrophils
Leukocytes (WBCs) are made up of all but which of the following cell types? Platelets
What is the primary function of neutrophils? Phagocytosis
What type of WBC attacks and destroys large eukaryotic pathogens and is involved in allergic reactions and inflammation? Eosinophils
What cells are directly responsible for the release of histamine and other allergic stimulants during immediate allergies? Mast cells
Where do B-lymphocytes mature in humans? Bone marrow
When monocytes migrate from blood vessels into tissue, inflammatory mediatory transform them into what? Macrophages
18. What is the name of the process by which WBCs adhere to the inner walls of small blood vessels and then migrate out of the blood into the tissue spaces? Diapedesis
19. Which cells produce and release endogenous pyrogens Neutrophils
20. What is the overall effect of vasodilation that occurs followings an injury Blood flow to the injured site is increased.
What Cells work closely with macrophages to provide the elegance and complexity of immune function? Lymphocytes
Major histo-compatibility complex antigens are found on all human cells with the exception of immune function? Red blood cells
Of the MHC genes, which codes for receptors that recognize and react with foreign antigens? Class II MHC
What class of MHC receptors is found on the surface of all nucleated cells? Class I MHC
What leads to the extreme variations in the expressions of specific receptors in lymphocytes? Clonal selection
What is the process by which lymphocytes clones that develop a specificity for self-molecule are eliminated or deleted from the pool of genetic diversity? Immune tolerance
Immunoglobulin heavy (H) chains genes are composed of genes from what segments of the genome? V, D, J, and C
A lymphocytes recognizes and responds to what component of an antigen? Antigenic determinant
What is the component found in the human body which can serve as a carrier molecule when bound by haptens? Serum proteins
What is responsible for incompatibilities that can occur during blood transfusions? Alloantigens
What are the first cells that recognize a processed and presented T- dependent antigen? T helper cells
What is one disadvantage of using attenuated vaccines? The organisms can mutate back to a virulent form following vaccination.
Once a B-Cell has processed and presented an antigen, what event must occur before it becomes activated The B cell must bind to an activated T helper cell that has receptors for the same antigen
In what type of reaction do antibodies fill surface receptors on a virus or the active site on a molecule to prevent it from functioning normally? Neutralization
What is the most prevalent antibody circulating throughout the tissues fluids and blood? IgG
What antibody is a significant component of the mucous and serous secretions of the salivary glands, intestine, nasal membrane, breast, lung, and genitourinary tract? Dimeric IgA
What type of cell is fuses with a myeloma cell when producing a hybridoma? Plasma cell
What is the mode of action of T- cytotoxic cells? They secrete perforins that create pores in the membrane of a target cell
Created by: 1287067777