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Plant Test 3


Anther 4 pollen sacs
Tapetum Elongated cells inside of pollen sac wall that serve as nutritive tissue for developing gametophyte and will make up the exine
Intine Smooth layer inside exine made up of cellulose and pectin
Microsporocytes Precursors to pollen grains
2-cell stage 75% of plants release pollen in this immature stage
25% of plants Let generative cells divide before releasing mature pollen
Apertures Openings in pollen grains
Egg apparatus Synergids plus egg
Chalazal end End of ovule opposite from egg
Micropylar end End of ovule where the egg is
Filiform apparatus Ingrowth of synergid cell walls to form transfer cells
Polygonum 75% of plants have this pattern of megasporogenisis and megagametogenesis
Megasporocyte Turns into embryo sac
Pollination Pollen grain transferred from anther to stigma, pollen tube grows down style to ovary, enters ovule through micropyle, penetrates a synergid which breaks down, and both sperm released through pore
Double fertilization One sperm unites with egg to form embryo, and the other sperm unites with polar nuclei to form endosperm
Seed coat Developed from integuments
Fruit Developed from pericarp
Pericarp Ovary wall
Fruit Mature ovary and accessory tissue
Fruit function Protection and dispersal
Exocarp Outer layer of pericarp
Mesocarp Middle layer of pericarp
Endocarp Inner layer of pericarp
Simple fruit Develops from a single ovary
Fleshy simple fruits Mesocarp is at least partly fleshy
Berries Fleshy simple fruit with many seeds and difficult to distinguish endocarp from mesocarp, like tomatoes, grapes, and peppers
Pepo Berry with thick exocarp (rind) like a pumpkin
Hesperidium Berry with leathery exocarp like citrus
Drupe Fleshy simple fruit with a single seed with a hard endocarp (stone) like peaches
Pome Fleshy simple fruit with many seeds and that develops from an inferior ovary so most of the "fruit" comes from receptacle, like an apple
Dry simple fruit Mesocarp is dry throughout
Dehiscent Dry simple fruit that splits at maturity
Follicle Dehiscent that splits along one line
Legume Dehiscent that splits along two lines, like beans or peas
Capsule Dehiscent that splits along 3 or more lines, like cotton or irises
Most common dehiscent dry fruit Capsule
Silique and silicles 2 fused carpels that split along 2 sides leaving seeds exposed on a septum between 2 valves
Silique 4 times longer than wide
Silicles About as long as wide
Indehiscent Simple dry fruit that does not split at maturity
Achene Indehiscent that has one seed attached at the base of the pericarp and is easy to separate, like sunflower
Cypsela Indehiscent that is an achene-like fruit developed from an inferior ovary
Samara Indehiscent that is like an achene with pericarp extended to form a wing to aid in wind dispersal
Schizocarp Two or more united carpels that partly separate at maturity into one-seeded sections, like carrots
Nut Larger and with a thicker and harder pericarp than achenes, developed from a compound ovary, like acorns
Caryopsis Seed coat tightly fused to fruit wall and can't be separated, like grains
Compound fruit Develops from several ovaries
Aggregate Compound fruit that develops from a single flower with several ovaries, like blackberries and strawberries
Multiple Compound fruit that develops from several flowers within an inflorescence, like pineapple and fig
How are fleshy edible fruits dispersed Resistant seed coat allows them to be eaten then pooped out later somewhere else, with a fertilizer package as bonus
Wind dispersal Seeds either light weight (orchids) or have seed or fruit modifications like wings or plumes
Water dispersal Modified for floating with air pockets and aerenchyma, like coconuts
Animal attachment dispersal Adaptations such as hooked hairs, spines, or sticky substances
Myrmecohory Ant dispersal, produce elaiosomes on outside of seed so ants carry the seeds back to feed queen and when it grows into a new plant the ants protect it as a food source
Elaiosomes Pigmented appendages on seed coats containing lipids, proteins, sugars, and vitamins
What plants use ant dispersal Thousands of plants; in North America most are spring ephemerals
Secondary compounds Not needed for the plant to maintain life, used as protection against herbivory
Mustard oil glycosides Enzymes break down glycosides into toxic compounds that release pungent odors which prevents most insects from eating the plants
Cardiac glycoside Found in foxglove and used to treat heart failure by regulating heart beat
Taxol Alkaloid found in yew and used to treat melanoma and ovarian and breast cancer
Created by: iragland



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