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Plant Test 3


Flower function Reproduction
Androecium All the stamens
Gynoecium All the pistils
Corolla All the petals
Calyx All the sepals
Perianth All sepals and petals
Peduncle Stalk of simple flower or inflorescence
Receptacle Inflated tip of peduncle where flower parts attach
Filament Tube of the stamen that attaches it to the receptacle
Anther Inflated tip of stamen held up by a filament
Parts of stamen Filament and anther
Parts of pistil Ovary, stigma, and style
Pistil Carpel
Stigma Inflated tip of the style
Ovary Contains ovule which contains megagametophytes
What develops into the seed Ovule
What develops into the fruit Ovary
What did all flower parts evolve from modified leaves
Primitive characteristics Solitary, complete, perfect, large and showy, many and indefinite parts, perianth parts alike, separate parts, superior ovary, actinomorphic
Derived characteristics Inflorescence, incomplete, imperfect, small flowers, few and definite parts, perianth parts distinct, fused flower parts, inferior ovary, zygomorphic
Complete All whorls present
Incomplete One or more whorls missing
Solitary Single flower on a peduncle
Inflorescence Flowers clustered into an aggregation
Perfect Flower has both male and female parts
Imperfect Flower either male or female
Monoecious Male and female flowers on same plant
Dioecious Male and female flowers on separate plants
Actinomorphic Radial symmetry
Zygomorphic Bilateral symmetry
Sepal function Protection, attract pollinators
What are sepals evolved from Leaves; three or more vascular traces
How to tell what a flower part evolved from Number of vascular traces
Three things petals evolved from Leaves, sepals, or stamens that have lost their sporangia
Petal function Attract pollinators
Primitive stamens Broad, colored, scented, involved in pollination
What plants have primitive stamens Magnoliids
What plants have advanced stamens Eudicots
Advanced stamens Anther and filament
Evolution of stamen Sporangia on lower surface of leaf, leaf blade reduced and sporangia fuse, become 4 pollen sacs on end of filament
What are filaments fused to in some plants Other filaments or petals
Pistil All carpels together
Carpel Megasporophyll, basal ovary
Primitive carpels Leaf-like, free from each other instead of fused, no specialized stigma
How did pistils evolve from leaves False indusium
Corona Fifth organ present in daffodils
Hypogynous Superior ovary, other whorls attached below ovary
Most common ovary position Hypogynous
Epigynous Inferior ovary inside receptacle, other whorls attached above ovary
Perigynous Superior ovary with hypanthium, other whorls attached below ovary and hypanthium
Hypanthium Cup-like receptacle up and around the ovary
Simple ovary Composed of only one carpel, one area of placentation, single locule, ovary single lobe
Compound ovary Fusion of two or more carpels, more than one area of placentation, two or more locules, ovary two or more lobes, style and stigma fused
What fruit shows a compound ovary Banana
Placenta Part of ovary to which ovules attach
Placentation Pattern of ovule attachment to placenta
Marginal Ovules along suture of simple ovary
Parietal Ovules on wall of compound ovary
Axile Ovules around center of compound ovary on axis formed from joined septa
Free central Ovules develop on central column in simple or compound ovary lacking septa
Apical One or few ovules at top of simple or compound ovary
Basal One or few ovules at base of simple or compound ovary
Sessile Flower with no stalk
Pedicel Secondary peduncle; stalk of flower in an inflorescence
Spike One unbranched axis with sessile flowers
Catkin Pendulous spike-like inflorescence of unisex, apetalous flowers
What are catkins modified for? Wind pollination
Raceme One unbranched axis and flowers with pedicels
Panicle Main axis has branches which are rebranched; each stalk is a raceme
Corymb Like a raceme but with pedicels all elongating to the same level to give the inflorescence a flat top
Umbel All pedicels arise from a common point at the tip of the peduncle
Compound umbel All peduncles arise from a common point and each bears a smaller umbel
Head Many small flowers borne on a common receptacle
Parts of a head Phyllaries, ray flowers, disk flowers, pappus
Phyllaries or involucre bracts Modified leaves that look like sepals
Ray flower Has fused petals
Pappus Modified calyx that aids in dispersal by wind
Spikelet Like a spike but with flowers and inflorescence subtended by specialized bracts
What has spikelet inflorescence Grass flowers
Parts of spikelet Glumes, lemma, palea, lodicule, feathery stigmas
Glumes Specialized bracts
Lemma Outer bract
Palea Inner bract
Lodicule Scale-like or knob-like structure at base of spikelet; remnants of perianth
Pollination Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma
Ornithophily Pollination by birds, primarily tropical and subtropical
Hydrophily Pollination by water
Anemophily Pollination by wind, flowers not showy and produce massive amounts of pollen
Entomophily Pollination by insects, brightly colored showy petals and scent
Pollen flowers Lots of pollen, insects feed on the pollen
Nectar flowers Insects feed on nectar produced by nectaries
Nectar Sugar water and dissolved minerals
Nectaries Glands at base of petals and ovary on receptacle
Insect guides Various means of guiding insects to nectaries such as contrasting petal colors or sets of dark stripes, streaks, or dots
Outcrossing Reduce self-pollination to increase genetic variability
Chasmogomous Open flower with visible pistil and anthers
How do perfect chasmogomous flowers promote outcrossing? Dichotgamy
Dichotgamy Stamens and carpels mature at different times
Protandrous Stamens mature first
Protogynous Carpel matures first
How do imperfect chasmogomous flowers promote outcrossing? Having stamens and carpels on separate flowers (monoecious) or separate plants (dioecious)
Self-incompatability Most members of a family can't be fertilized with their own pollen
Gametophytic self-incompatability If pollen grain allele is homozygous with allele of stigma, it will germinate but will not enter (determined by pollen grain genotype)
Sporophytic self-incompatability If exine is homozygous with stigma pollen grain will not germinate (determined by genetics of the pollen's parent plant)
Exine Outer covering of pollen grain
Intine Layer inside of exine
How many plants self-pollinate More than 50% in temperate regions
Cleistogamous Pollination occurs within bud at ground level
Advantages of self-pollination Doesn't depend on pollinator and is well suited for specific habitats such as disturbed areas
Microsporogenisis Formation of microspores within microsporangia
Microgametogenisis Microspore turns into microgametophyte
Microgametophyte Pollen
Megasporogenisis Formation of megaspores within ovule
Megagametogenesis Development of megaspore into embryo sac
Created by: iragland



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