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Skin Disorders

Integumentary disorders med surg mod 1

macule flat, circumscribed area that is changed in color and <1cm. i.e. freckles, flat moles, measles, scarlet fever, petechiae
papule elevated, firm circumscribed area <1cm i.e. warts, elevated moles, lichens planus
patch flat, nonpalpable, irregularly shaped macule >1cm i.e. port wine stains, vitiligo, Mongolian spots, café-au-lait spots
plaque elevated, firm, rough lesion with flat topped surface >1cm i.e. psoriasis, sebhorreic keratosis, actinic keratosis
wheal elevated, irregularly shaped area of cutaneous edema; solid, transient, variable diameter i.e. insect bites, urticarial, allergic reactions
nodule Elevated, firm, circumscribed lesion; deeper in dermis than a papule; 1-2 cm i.e. Erythema nodosum, lipomas
tumor Elevated and solid lesion; may or may not be clearly demarcated; deeper in dermis; >2 cm in diameter Neoplasms, benign tumor, lipoma, hemangioma
vesicle Elevated, circumscribed, superficial, not into dermis; filled with serous fluid; <1 cm in diameter Varicella (chickenpox), herpes zoster (shingles)
bulla Vesicle >1 cm in diameter Blister, pemphigus vulgaris
pustule superficial lesion; similar to a vesicle but filled with purulent fluid Impetigo, acne
Cyst Elevated, circumscribed, encapsulated lesion; in dermis or subcutaneous layer; filled with liquid or semisolid material Sebaceous cyst, cystic acne
lichenification rough, thickened epidermis secondary to persistent rubbing, itching, skin irritation; often involves flexor surface of extremity i.e. chronic dermatitis
scale Heaped-up keratinized cells; flaky skin; irregular; thick or thin; dry or oily; variation in size Flaking of skin with seborrheic dermatitis after scarlet fever, or flaking of skin following a drug reaction; dry skin
keloid Irregularly shaped, elevated, progressively enlarging scar; grows beyond the boundaries of the wound; caused by excessive collagen formation during healing
scar Thin to thick fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after injury or laceration to the dermis i.e. healed wound or surgical incision
excoriation Loss of the epidermis; linear hollowed-out crusted area Abrasion or scratch, scabies
fissure Linear crack or break from the epidermis to the dermis; may be moist or dry Athlete’s foot, cracks at the corner of the mouth
erosion Loss of part of the epidermis; depressed, moist, glistening; follows rupture of a vesicle or bulla Varicella, variola after rupture
ulcer Loss of epidermis and dermis; concave; varies in size Pressure sores, stasis ulcers
crust Dried serum, blood, or purulent exudate; slightly elevated; size varies: brown, red, black, or tan Scab on abrasion, eczema
atrophy Thinning of skin surface and loss of skin markings; skin translucent and paper-like Striae; aged skin
functions of the skin protection, temperature regulation, fluid retention, vitamin D synthesis
skin assessment P-provocative and palliative factors (what caused it?) Q-quality and quantity of the problem (size & characteristics) R-region of the body S-severity of s/s T- time (the patient has had disorder)
mole assessment A-assymetrical? B-borders irregular? C- color uneven or irregular? D-diameter of growth changed recently? E-has surface become elevated?
Created by: Perfectlysusan