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ES Topic 12

Earth's Dynamic Crust and Interior

QuestionAnswer
Asthenosphere the plastic (flexible) layer of Earth’s mantle just below the lithosphere that allows for plate movement. It’s partly solid, partly liquid.
Continental crust Earth’s upper lithosphere that makes up land masses and larger islands. It’s granitic rather than basaltic.
Convergent plate boundary where two plates meet. Often involved with mountain building, trench formation and volcanic island arcs
Crust outermost Earth’s solid lithosphere. Separated from the uppermost mantle and lower lithosphere by Mohoh
Divergent plate boundary meeting area between two plates that are spreading apart at a mid-ocean ridge or continental rift zone.
Earthquake release of energy found in rocks that causes a natural, rapid shaking of the lithosphere. Can also be a result of volcanic eruptions
Epicenter the place on Earth’s surface that is directly above the focus or origin of an earthquake
Faulted rock layers that are offset or displaced along a crack
Folded a type of deformed rock that has bends in layered rock, due to movement in the lithosphere
Hot spot major regions of volcanic activity
Inner core innermost section of Earth, which is thought to be comprised of iron and nickel in the solid state
Island arc a long stretch of volcanoes/volcanic islands
Lithosphere the whole crust and upper part of Earth’s mantle
(Lithospheric) plate section of lithosphere that moves around Earth’s solid surface
Mantle the mostly solid part of Earth between the crust and outer core
Mid-ocean ridge lines of mountain in the ocean made from volcanoes and lava flows
Moho interface, or boundary zone, between Earth’s crust and mantle
Oceanic crust area of crust under water, not part of continental crust
Ocean trench long, steep, and narrow depression under water, caused by subducting plates which warp the crust
Original horizontality concept describing normal pattern of deposits formed by sedimentary, some igneous rocks and lava flows
Outer core zone of Earth between mantle and inner core
Plate tectonic theory explains the moving of Lithosphere’s plates
P-waves the fastest moving earthquake waves, caused by vibrating particles in the direction the waves are moving
Seismic wave the energy waves given off by an earthquake
Subduction plate tectonic process at a convergent boundary where one plate sinks under another plate, and eventually melts into the asthenosphere
S-waves earthquake waves, caused by vibrating particles at a right angle to the direction the waves are traveling in
Transform plate boundary boundary at which plates slide by each other (San Andreas Fault is an example)
Tsunami very large, fast moving wave caused by a disturbance like and earthquake
Uplifted raised up, as in mountain building
Young mountains mountains that are still rising because they are at a location of converging plates or a hot spot
Created by: etucci